19 terms

cell division vocabulary

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Cell Division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Anaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Asexual reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Diploid
containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Crossing Over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Gamete
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
Haploid
An organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes.
Homologous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
Independent assortment
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
Interphase
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
Meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Sexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
Telophase
the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.