42 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 2

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Atom (2.1
Basic unit of matter.
Nucleus (2.1)
The center of an atom which contains protons and neutrons.
Electron (2.1)
Negatively charged particle, located outside the atomic nucleus.
Element (2.1)
Substance consisting entirely of one type of atom.
Isotope (2.1)
Atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element.
Compound (2.1)
Substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
Ionic bond (2.1)
Bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Ion (2.1)
Atom that has a positive or negative charge.
Covalent bond (2.1)
Bond formed by sharing electrons.
Molecule (2.1)
Smallest unit of a compound.
van der Waals forces (2.1)
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
Hydrogen bond (2.2)
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
Cohesion (2.2)
Attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Adhesion (2.2)
Attraction between molecules of different substances.
Mixture (2.2)
Material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.
Solution (2.2)
Mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed. (i.e. Kool-Aid).
Solvent (2.2)
Substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution. (i.e. water for Kool-Aid).
Solute (2.2)
Substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. (i.e. Kool-Aid powder).
Suspension (2.2)
Mixture of water and non-dissolved materials. (i.e. muddy water).
pH Scale (2.2)
Measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. Ranges from 0-14.
Acid (2.2)
Compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution. pH less than 7.
Base (2.2)
Compound that forms hydroxide ions in solution. pH greater than 7.
Buffer (2.2)
Weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
Monomer (2.3)
Small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.
Polymer (2.3)
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Carbohydrate (2.3)
Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Major source of energy for the human body.
Monosaccharide (2.3)
Single sugar molecule.
Polysaccharide (2.3)
Large macromolecule formed from several monosaccharides linked together.
Lipid (2.3)
Macromolecule made mainly form carbon and hydrogen atoms. Includes fats, oils, and waxes.
Nucleic Acid (2.3)
Macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
Nucleotide (2.3)
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) (2.3)
Single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) (2.3)
Double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose.
Protein (2.3)
Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Needed by the body for growth and repair of tissues and to make enzymes.
Amino Acid (2.3)
Monomer of protein with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end.
Chemical Reaction (2.4)
Process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
Reactant (2.4)
Element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction.
Product (2.4)
Element or compound that is the result of a chemical reaction.,
Activation Energy (2.4)
Energy needed to get a reaction started.
Catalyst (2.4)
Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction.
Enzyme (2.4)
Protein that acts as a biological catalyst.
Substrate (2.4)
Reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

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