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quiz questions for exam 2
Terms in this set (60)
when an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is also called the...
when an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The point on Earth's surface directly above this source is called the ___________ of the earthquake
are slower than p waves, faster than surface waves
what is the theory for how earthquakes are generated by way rocks deforming (being strained) on either side of a fault, following by a sudden failure of the fault?
the difference in arrival times of _____ waves and ________ waves reflects the distance of an earthquake from seismic station
p waves and s waves
at least how may seismic stations are required to geographically locate the geographic position of an earthquake?
which scale reflects an earthquakes impact on a particular location?
Modified Mercalli scale
which of the following are hazards associated with earthquakes?
liquefaction, ground motion, tsunamis, fires, aftershocks, land slides
How fast does a tsunami travel?
500 miles per hour
The basin and range province and the east african rift valley are good examples of crustal.....
say we observe a large earthquake with a moment magnitude if 8.9 followed by (a day later) aftershock with a moment magnitude of 6.9. How much more energy was released in the first earthquake, relative to shock?
1,000 = 10^3
what has no influence on the viscosity of magma?
what DOES have influence on viscosity?
-amount of dissolved gasses it contains
-the amount of water dissolved in the magma
Magma A has a low viscosity and magma B has high viscosity. Which magma is more likely to result in a violent (explosive) eruption?
Magma B because gases cannot escape easily
Mount St. Helens in the Cascade range of the pacific northwest, and kilauea in hawaii are respectively what type of volcanoes?
stratovolcano (Mt st. helens) and shield volcano (kilauea)
which magma is more likely to form granite or rhyolite once it cools completely?
high silica and lower temperature
which magma is most likely to form diorite or andesite once it cools completely?
medium silica and medium temperature
which magma most likely form basalt or gabbro once it cools completely?
low silica and high temp
what is a lahar?
wet, downslope flow of a mixture of volcanic debris, which is triggered by volcanic activity
what are some volcanic hazards you could face working on a volcano?
-suffocation by gases emitted by the volcano
-earthquakes generated by moving magma beneath volcano
-landslides and mudflows triggered
what are different types of pyroclastic material?
pumice, tephra, bomb, ash
the boundaries between watersheds of all sizes are elevated areas called ________
what is a river's base level?
the elevation where a river cannot flow further or erode deeper
what is the mathematical relationship between discharge, area, and velocity of a river?
discharge = area x velocity
what do we call a stream that has S shape curve?
what does the "stage" of a river mean?
how high the river water is, relative to some fixed height called a datum
a plot showing the loss of elevation along a river's length is called a
House A and B are identical in terms of their size, features, and price. House A is located on the point bar side of a meandering stream. House B is located on the cut bank side of the same stream. Which house would be better long term investment?
what is true of the 100 year flood?
-commonly used in communities located near rivers as a guide for planning decisions
-defined as flood that has 100 yr reoccurrence interval
-estimated discharge can be calculated using a graph called a flood frequency or rating curve
say a river side town just experienced a 50 year flood.. that means that
a flood event of that size has a probability of 1 in 50 (2%) chance of occurrence in the next year
a cut off meander is known as an
the key driving force behind slope failure is
the steepest stable slope than an unconsolidated material (dry sand or gravel) can maintain is that material's
angle of repose
creep is _______ mass wasting process than debris flows
conditions that may result in a debris flow are...
heavy rain or snowmelt over steep slopes
karst terrain is characterized by
- large areas of water-soluble materials, such as limestone or halite
-underground caves and caverns
how do people contribute to landslide problems?
Clearing vegetation with deep roots decreases the slope's resisting forces
-Septic systems, swimming pools, or leaking water pipes add fluid to the slope
-Excavation may locally steepen slopes, interrupting normal drainage patterns and introducing higher driving stress
-Buildings add weight to slopes, increasing driving forces for the slope to fail.
the fastest of all mass movement is
reduction of the potential for failure on a very steep slope can be accomplished by
-reducing the weight of, or load on, the slope
-reduction of the slope angle
-placing additional support on the base of the slope
earthquakes or heavy rains (may/may not) trigger land slides
repeating freezing and thawing can be important in
soil creep movements
where are most of Earth's freshwater resources?
ice sheets and glaciers
the percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces is called...
______ is a measure of how easily water passes through a material
unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and water table
A perched aquifer was created, what kind of rocks would you find in this perched aquifer?
low porosity shales
generally, does sand, or rock equivalent, sandstone, have more porosity?
in order for a particular reservoir of groundwater to be considered an aquifer it must
produce water at a quantity and rate useful to people
the best aquifers are comprised of this material
sand and gravel
all other things remaining the same, urbanization in an area that was previously forested landscape will tend to
decrease recharge to the local groundwater system
what is the most common metal dissolved in our local drinking water?
The organization that protects the nation's water quality is...
US environmental protection agency (EPA)
which process can raise the water table?
extended periods of rain
which of the following are desalinization processes, used to remove salt from water?
distillation and reverse osmosis
main drawback to desalinization (removing salt from saline water in order to render the water drinkable is the....
if a low permeability layer overlies an aquifer, the aquifer is said to be
which US state does NOT use water from ogallala (high plains) aquifer
how is freshwater used?
-electric power generation
chronic arsenic poisoning can lead to..
skin lesions and skin cancer
What is not an effect of over-drafting during groundwater mining?
increased aquifer recharge
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
oct 15 lecture (rivers and flooding)
Mineral Resources (final)
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