an intellectual movement (during the Renaissance) in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
point of view or general standpoint from which different things are viewed, physically or mentally; the appearance to the eye of various objects at a given time, place, or distance
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Catholics to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.