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an intellectual movement (during the Renaissance) in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.

Printing Press

invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects


belonging to the same period of time as oneself; a person of the same time


point of view or general standpoint from which different things are viewed, physically or mentally; the appearance to the eye of various objects at a given time, place, or distance


the crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine

Qualtiy of Life

is used to evaluate the general well-being of individuals and societies


an economic system based on private property and free enterprise


worldly; not connected with a church or religion

Silk Road

an ancient trade route between China and Europe


a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Catholics to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims


An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.


a formal agreement establishing an association or alliance between nations or other groups to achieve a particular aim

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