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23 terms

chapter 11 - stress

emotion, stress, and health
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general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
a set of physiological reactions that occur in three phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Hans Selye
physician/physiologist who described the body's response to stressors of all kinds as a general adaptation syndrome
HPA axis
system activated to energize the body to respond to stressors; hypothalamus sends chemical messengers to the pituitary, which in turn prompts the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol and other hormones
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of the relationships among psychology, the nervous and endocrine systems, and the immune system
locus of control
a general expectation about whether the results of your actions are under your own control or beyond your control
internal locus
actions under your own control
external locus
actions beyond your control
primary control
an effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events; a "fighting back" philosophy
secondary control
an effort to accept reality by changing your own attitudes, goals, or emotions; a "learn to live with it" philosophy
alarm phase
"fight or flight"; adrenal (stress) hormones elevated, which increases blood flow, speeds up heart rate, slows digestion, and tenses muscles
resistance phase
the body attempts to cope with a stressor that cannot be avoided and return to normal; physiological responses continue, but make the body more vulnerable
exhaustion phase
persistent stress that depletes the body of energy, increasing vulnerability to physical problems and illness; unhealthy response to long-range stress
stress
describes the specific reaction to stressors
stressor
any person, event, or situation that causes a physiological stress response
eustress
"good stress"
pathway 1
hypothalamus activates the sympathetic division of the ANS, which stimulates the adrenal medulla to produce epinephrine and norepinephrine
pathway 2
messages travel along the HPA axis to the adrenal cortex, which produces cortisol and other hormones; the result is increased energy and protection from tissue inflammation in case of injury
cortisol
hormone produced by the adrenal cortex when the HPA axis is activated; increases energy and protects tissues from inflammation, but can have unwanted long-term consequences
telomere
protein complex located at the end of every chromosome that tells the cell how long it has to live; chronic stress is thought to shorten these complexes
cynical or antagonistic hostility
the toxic ingredient in the "Type A" personality that is thought to be associated with a significant increase in risk for heart disease
emotion-focused coping
one concentrates on the emotions the problem has caused, whether anger, anxiety, or grief, and is often overwhelmed by these feelings
problem-focused coping
one has identified the nature of the problem and is ready to concentrate on solving it
cognitive coping methods
reappraise the situation; learn from the experience; make social comparisons