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archeology test 2

Terms in this set (86)

location: greece
when: 1899
date: 2000 BCE
who: Arthur Evans
importance: found large open air palace w/h central courtyard with running water and sewer system. reconstructed the palace at the site using cement so now it can't be undone. palace doubled as redistribution center for goods-citizens would bring goods for storage and then palace would redistribute them as needed, lots of storage jars found including some sunk into the ground to keep them cold. mystery-no fortifications: Minoans had a phallisocracy (ruled sea with navy) but they still could be attacked form land neighbors (maybe single ruling family over all the palaces on the land? or matriarchy?) we also have no clue who ruled Crete or what governing style they had. Evans found lots of figurines of goddesses holding snakes though-evans hired recinstructionists so the museums that have these statues are likely fakes made to be sold to tourists

found wall painting in palace courtyard showing three ppl. leaping over a bull. is this where the minotaur was? also found bulls head in stone that was hollow for wine to drip through and if you hold it at the right angle it looks like a sacrificed bulls head-maybe used for sacrifice in place of a real bull?

more incorrect reconstructions:
1. dolphin fresco
2. priest king

-dangers of reconstruction he probably was correct about some of his palace reconstruction but not all of it so now it biases future interpretations, we can't unsee his reconstruction-messed up on frescos
-super advanced Bronze Age civilizationcivilization: sewer systems, storage centers with jars and holes to store jars int eh ground to keep them cold
-lots of mysteries
-maybe bringing myth into reality or finding bases for myths?
who: richard chandler- recruited locals to find it
when: 1766, then French dug it in 1829 and the germans dug it from pretty much 1875 to present with some gaps
location: greece
date: site of first Olympic Games in 776 BCE-held every 4th year (Panhellenic greek games) roman emperor Justinian ended them b/c they were pagan
importance: found remains from the temple of zeus (patron saint of Olympia) and the games were to honor him. connection between religion and athletics to ease tension and celebrate greek city states-opportunity for smaller city states to get some glory, each city had small buildings known as treasuries that looked like mini temples and held dedications (gold and silver) from the cities. games they played include footraces, wrestling and boxing, chariot races, races in full armor, penetration( kickboxing), discus, long jump (with weights thrown mid jump behind them to go farther) would have done all of them naked. only one winner in each competition and they would get a laurel crown but they would get more gifts on return to their home city (and lodging for life in Athens). excavated dirt embankments on the sides of the stadium that served as stands for spectators and found lots of bronze armor and weapons that owed have been originally attached to stakes and driven into the embankments in rows above the spectators as dedications to zeus made by victorious warriors, like flags atop a stadium today (militates bronze helm an example of this).

about celebrating your city state but also about bringing together all the greeks in the greek speaking world together-show commonalities.

example of good excavation, only put up parts of the columns that fell and left the rest of them de-constructed
when: 1920s-30s
who: mousollini
where: rome
date: began in 72 CE, dedicated unfinished by Titus (son) in 80 CE
importance: used to be originally called Flavian amphitheater (cuz Flavian dynasty) then started being called _________ in 8th century because of 120 ft tall statue of Nero that was once nearby or because it was the largest building in the city. used to hold gladiator fights and wild beast fights mostly sponsored by citizens or emperors held days on days of etnertianments-entertainment, used for fascism archeology, later influenced 18th and 19th century romantic poets ex: lord Byron, Nathaniel hawthorne

who paid for it?: it was probably paid for by roman capture/sack of Jerusalem in 70 CE. marble inscription records restoration work "ruins caecina Felix lampadius restored at his own expense the areas of the amphitheater" in 443/444 CE. holes between inscription that were drilled in made of bronze letters with pegs that would have fit in holes-called ghost inscription. found by matching up which letters would have best fit the holes. Inscription said "the emperor caesar vespian Augustus ordered new amphitheater to be made from the (proceeds from the sale of the) booty" Titus later added a "T" in front of Caesar to stand in for Titus and make it HIS name after vespian died and he dedicated the amphitheater so he could take credit for the sack of Jerusalem which he performed because vespian had been called back to Rome to be crowned emperor after just being the roman general in charge of the smashing of the revolt.

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