Unit 3: Urban America & the Progressive Era
Terms in this set (31)
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. However, he would achieve the title of president, as William McKinley defeated him.
William "Boss" Tweed
Polical Machine Leader of NYC's Tammany Hall. Corrupt in spending tax dollars. Benefit voters for votes and politicians for graft/greed. Tweed's removal was apart of a growing demand for the breaking down of political corruption.
Process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture. This commonly took place with Native Americans being assimilated into American society. As more Americans moved West and displaced Natives from their land, efforts to assimilate them into American society increased. These efforts included legislation such as the Dawes Severalty Act and Morill Land Grant Act.
An agrarian-based political movement aimed at improving conditions for the country's farmers and agrarian workers.
William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. In an effort to bust corporate trusts, McKinley appointed the U.S. Industrial Commission in 1898.
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads. Due to the corrupt business practices of railroad monopolists such as Jay Gould, this movement emerged out of necessity.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones. Those who Nativists felt that immigrants especially from Ireland, Italy, and other European countries were stealing jobs from native born workers.
The shift in the population of the nation to living in cities and industrial hubs. Urbanization is highly associated with the increase in Progressive movements.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity. These were common in cities where many immigrant workers were susceptible to influence by financial aid.
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support. Many politicians were corrupted by the financial assistance of trusts and influential monopolies.
Civil Service Act
Law created in 1883 that created a system were government jobs were hired based on ability not how influential one was. Originally only applied to 10 percent of government employees but was important in removing power of political machines. This act was an early move in the direction of decreasing the level of corruption in government.
Encouraged people to not only go to church and partake in their religion, but instill their religion's values into every facet of their life. This was the opposite of the Gospel of Wealth, which was written by Andrew Carnegie.
A clause exempting certain classes of people or things from the requirements of a piece of legislation affecting their previous rights, privileges, or practices. Commonly used to exclude individuals who were conforming with the former status of given laws.
Jim Crow Laws
The term used to describe laws which systematically oppressed African-Americans in the South. Was a derogatory term used by Southern Whites to insult Southern Blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. Upheld the concept of separate but equal. However, this decision was overturned by the Brown v. Board of Education.
(1901 -1917Formed by Midwestern farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax. Many of these feelings also resided in urban areas.
A total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol. Was initiated by wives frustrated with their husbands spending their family's money on alcohol and creating a poor family structure as a result.
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages. This was the law putting into affect the Prohibition. Eventually the 18th Amendment was repealed in 1933 by the passage of the 21st Amendment.
Slang term to describe an investigative journalist who exposed injustice in industry or other areas of society.
Women obtaining the right to vote. This was achieved in 1919 with the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution.
Roosevelt reflected three basic goals: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. It aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Theodore Roosevelt laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines. The disgusting practices of the industry were exposed by Upton Sinclair in his book "The Jungle"
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. This law led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The philosophy of appropriately using the environment for economic gain. Emphasizes the need for society to use the environment to its benefit, but ensure it is done in a sustainable manner. Is the middle ground between Preservation and pure Capitalism.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights activist group that is dedicated to protecting the interests of African-Americans in the U.S. It defends colored people on an individual basis with criminal and civil injustice. As well, they advocate and lobby for African Americans in Congress.
Bull Moose Party
A name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912. In the 1912 presidential campaign it named itself after the nickname of Theodore Roosevelt, which was The Bull Moose.
Federal Trade Commission
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy. This was another trust busting move by the US Government.
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates. It was established by President Woodrow Wilson as a way to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system.
Gave women the right to vote. This amendment was accompanied by the other Progressive Amendments, which were the 16th, 17th, and 18th Amendments.
Controlled who was able to hold a job in New York City. As a result, they controlled the decisions of those working in government agencies and departments. Through this control, they were able to extort millions of tax dollars from the city's residents.
A famous cartoonist who exposed Boss Tweed and the Tweed Ring for their control of the New York City police, courts, and other government agencies.