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Ch. 5 Adv. Bio
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What does a hypotonic environment do to a plant and animal cell?
Plant cells love hypotonic environments; it will expand till its reaches equilibrium
Animals cells dislike hypotonic environment because the cell will expand till it explodes because the solution surrounding the cell it to great for the cell.
What does an isotonic environment do to a plant and animal cell?
Plant cells don't enjoy isotonic environment; the plant cells won't gain anything from it, and because of this a few of the cells will die; the plant will wilt
Animals cells love this type of environment. It is the only environment which they can live in.
What does a hypertonic environment do to a plant and animal cell?
Plant cells and animal cells would both die in this environment. Plant cells' membrane would collapse killing the cell. The membrane would collapse because the central vacuole is what keeps the plant cell in shape, and since the central vacuole collapse so did the membrane
Animal cell would just collapse and shrivel in on it self.
What keeps a plant up right?
What is the cell membrane made up of?Is it semipermeable?
Is glucose polar or non-polar? Is it a lipid or a carb?
How would glucose enter an animal cell? Describe it. What lines the inside and outside of it?
It can get through by entering the hydrophilic tunnel. The tunnel is made up of protein. Hydophilic R-group line the tunnel. The R-group on the outside of the tunnel is hydrophobic.
______ are tunnels specifically made to transport water
What is glycoprotein?What is the tag called?
it identifies self and attack anything that isn't self. The tag is called the periferal
What would happen if the periferal was damaged?
your immune system will attack the cell
What gives the cell membrane flexibility?
About how many kinds of proteins are located in/on the cell?
If it is bigger than three molecules and polar then it can or cannot move across the cell membrane without help
What holds onto the cytoskeleton so the cells has shape
What type of proteins are integral and helps bring in glucose? What lines the inside? What lines the outside? Are there specific channels for water and glucose?
hydrophilic molecules line the inside
hydrophobic line the outside
What are anchor proteins?
sits on the surface; one of the protein that identify self; link to your immune system; glucose and protein chains
What type of protein goes all the way through the membrane, is part of membrane, responds to chemical signals, and has substrate and active site?
It receives signal from the cell to tell it what to make ex. insulin
What are transport proteins?
they are tunnels that can open and close; can be trigger to open and close.
They assist movement of substances across bilayer that can't go on their own
is a movement of a substrate from higher to lower concentration (down the gradient)
requires no ATP
Higher to lower concentration is a ____ ______
What is a solution?
solute + solvent (H2O)
Does passive transport require ATP?
Simple diffusion is a form of passive transport. What is simple diffusion?
movement from higher to lower concentration until equilibrium is reached(moves with the gradient)
Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport. What is facilitated diffusion?
is when something goes through one of the channel protein
Does active transport need ATP?
What does active transport do?
moves substances against their concentration gradients
What is exocytosis?It is a form of active transport
way to get things out of the cell fast especially large quantities
What is endocytosis? It is a form of active transport.
way a cell can engulf a substance
cell eating large molecules/ whole cells
cell drinking small molecules, fluids .
A "false foot"
anything that has the word pump in it needs____
A protein pump helps move what against what?
helps move hydrogen protons against the gradient
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane
What is made up of protein and phospholipids?
Phospholipids are amphipathic. What does amphipathic mean?
having hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts
What is the fluid mosaic model? What holds it together?
current model for animal plasma membrane
held together by weak phobic interactions
What causes kinks so that phospholipids can't pack together as close together(remain fluid at colder temps)?
unsaturated fatty acids
Cholesterol can exist in animal cells or plant cells? What happens to the membranes at higher and lower temperature?
Cholesterol can only exist in animals
It makes membranes less fluid at higher temps (keeps phospholipids from moving around)
It keeps membranes more fluid at lower temps (keeps phospholipids from packing closely together)
Where are peripheral, integral, and transmembrane proteins located?
peripheral-loosely bound to the surface
integral- embedded in membrane
transmembrane-span the entire membrane
What is selectively permeable mean?
allows certain molecules to pass through- non-polar, hydrophobic, gases, and prevents other substances from passing through
When an animal cell swell and burst
when animal cells shrink
cell membrane pulls away from cell
Cotransport...is it a proton pump that uses ATP to create concentration gradient?
What is energy?
the capacity to do work
What is kinetic energy?
energy of moving objects
Potential energy is energy stored as a result of ______or_______
energy stored as a result of position or structure
What is chemical energy?
form of potential energy stored in chemical bonds in molecules
Thermodynamics is the study of what?
study of energy transformations that occur in matter
What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics?
energy of the universe is constant; energy can be transferred and transformed, but never created or destroyed
What is the 2nd law of Thermodynamics?
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder or randomness) of the universe.
Metabolism is all the _____ reactions in an organism
_______ ______ is a series of chemical reactions the either builds or breaks a complex molecule
Growth, reproduction, and maintenance of organization in living systems require constant input of _____ ______ and ______
free energy and matter
What is loss of order/ free energy?
Cells manage their energy resources and do work by...
energy coupling (use energy from exergonic reactions to drive endergonic ones)
Energy input must exceed ____ _____ loss to ____ to maintain order and power cellular processes
free energy loss to entropy
What is the key role of ATP?
_____ is the main source of energy in all living things
______ ______ is the amount of energy required to get chemical reaction started
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Enzymes...are biological catalysts; most enzymes are _____. They work by lowering _____ _______. They don't change the free energy of reaction.
A reactant enzymes acts on what? Are they unchanged and reusable? Enzymes have ______ temperature
What is an active site?
region on enzyme that binds to substrate (held in active site by WEAK interactions)
Can extremes in pH and temp denature enzymes?
-compete with substrate for active site
monomers to polymers
polymers to monomers
What is gelatin
it is proteins from animals bones
what is protease?
an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of protein fibers
What is the term for when the binding of a substrate or some other molecules to an enzyme has to enhance/ inhibit its activity
a solution with a higher concentration of solutes
a solution with a lower concentration of solutes
exergonic reaction (give example)
('energy outward') releases energy and occurs spontaneously. Energy of products is lower than the energy of the reactants (ex. cellular respiration)
('energy inward') requires energy; absorbs free energy from system; not spontaneously. Energy of products is higher than the energy of the reactants (ex. photosynthesis)
enzyme fits substrate like "lock and key" only specific substrate will fit
induced fit model
once substrate binds to active site, enzyme changes shape slightly to bind the substrate more firmly placing a strain on the existing bonds in substrate lowering act energy
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