1. Migration-Major impact on multilingualism and multiculturalism throughout the world.
- 2005: nearly 200 million international migrants
- Even though immigrants in a given country differ linguistically, culturally, and socioeconomically, many share common characteristics such as insufficient knowledge of the languages, dialects, and accents spoken by the residents in their new country.
2. International Adoption-
-Migrants- children who are adopted internationally
-Often referred to as Second First Language Learners because they are neither monolingual nor multilingual
-Begin learning one language in their home country then at the time of adoption, exposure to their first language ceases, and they begin to learn another language.
-More likely to have poorer language outcomes
--Age affects this
--Also, children from China tended to have better language outcomes than other countries who have deprivation
-Top countries for adoptions: China, Ethiopia, Russia, S. Korea, Guatemala, Ukraine, Vietnam, Haiti, Kazakhstan, India
-Top 4 countries to adopt: U.S, Great Britian, Australia, Canada
-We don't form any type of assessment until after 2 years that they are in the new culture
-Involves consideration of environmental and personal factors that are important for the child, family, and their social and education context emotional
-Observations, case history, things that we got first of all
1. Language use and proficiency of children and families, including length of time the language has been spoken, its frequency and context of use, proficiency in the language, a language history of the countries the child has lived in, as well as child, parental, and community attitudes toward different languages spoken
2. Cultural heritage
3. parent and teacher reported concerns regarding children's speech and language skills
Pre-assessment materials to use
1. The Alberta Language and Development Questionnaire
2. SWOT- strengths, weaknesses, opportunties, and threats
---Facial expression, body movement, gestures, environmental clues, silence, tone of voice, or "vibes"
---Asian, American Indian, Arab, Latino, and African American cultures