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Psy. 309 Online Test 2
Terms in this set (182)
A psychologist is doing a study in which they are examining how frequently children seek out playing with other children in their class depending on how reinforcing the children find playing with each child in their class. The psychologist hypothesized that children will seek out playing with the children they enjoy playing with more frequently than seeking out playing with children they do not enjoy playing with. What type of conditioning is this psychologist studying?
A psychologist is measuring how quickly rats will reach a food reward when they are placed into a T maze with a food reward in the right arm. What type of conditioning is this psychologist studying?
C'nee dislikes feeling cold and when she entered Peabody she got very cold. As soon as she put on her sweater, she felt warmer. She is now more likely to put her sweater on as soon as she feels cold in Peabody. What response consequence did she experience?
An individual with agoraphobia needs to go somewhere outside but experiences extreme fear at the thought so they refuse to leave their house. As a result their fear goes away and they are more likely to stay home in the future. What response consequence maintains the agoraphobia?
Secondary reinforcers become reinforcing through the process of operant conditioning.
Lauren studied effectively for her first exam in Psy 309 and as a result earned a good grade. She is now more likely to study in the same manner for her second exam in Psy 309 because she received _____ for her studying effectively.
Last time they were at the store, Maya begged for a candy bar and stopped as soon as her mother gave her the candy. The next time they are in the store, her mother gives her the candy as soon as Maya begins whining. The change in the mother's behavior is due to experiencing:
Which of the following is not one of the reasons Skinner defined reinforcers according to their influence rather than their inherent properties?
There are only ten universal reinforcers.
Jie enjoys spending time on social media reinforcing. What type of reinforcer is this?
Halle loves making people laugh but Hank does not. Which of the following is true?
Halle will likely increase engaging in behaviors that make others laugh.
Dr. Woniz is using instrumental conditioning and Dr. Ivy is using operant conditioning in their current research studies. They are both attempting to modify ____.
Samantha worked in the distribution department at a large organization. She was known as a loner and seldom interacted with the other employees. The departmental leaders began praising and admiring Samantha when she engaged in cooperative work with the other employees. Samantha began to interact with other employees more often. What response consequence did she experience?
A reinforcer that is inherently reinforcing because it has innate biological value to the organism.
A reinforcer that becomes reinforcing through experience.
Sam just entered a restaurant he has never entered and sees a sign "Please wait to be seated". Sam has learned the ______ between this sign and his behavior of waiting for a host/hostess to seat him, so he waits.
Which of the following are considered primary reinforcers?
- Ability to maintain a comfortable temperature
Which of the following do you need to know in order to determine what type of consequence an organism received during operant conditioning?
- Whether a stimulus or event was added or removed.
-If the organism finds the stimulus or event desirable or aversive.
-The outcome on the future likelihood of the behavior.
Which of the following are behaviors?
- Drinking Water
- Hitting a ball
- Saying "hello"
C'nee likes checking Facebook and allows herself to check Facebook only after she exercises for at least 30 minutes. C'nee is now more likely to exercise for at least 30 minutes each day. What response consequence did she experience?
Mateo was extremely uncomfortable due to the current temperature outside so he went inside and cooled off. The reinforcement for going inside to cool off was due to a:
primary negative reinforcer
José finds watching movies reinforcing. What type of reinforcer is this?
Chuckie cracked his tooth which produced great pain. He had the problem corrected by the dentist. The reinforcement for going to the dentist was due to a:
primary negative reinforcer
Amalia loves dancing with a partner and last Friday she was asked to dance by the best dance partner when she dared to dance alone. Amalia is now more likely to dance alone if she has nobody to dance with. What response consequence did she experience?
Amalia dislikes people talking in the audience while others are performing. During one performance she politely told two people to stop talking and they did. Amalia is now more likely to politely ask other audience members to stop talking if they are. What response consequence did she experience?
A stimulus that increases the likelihood of the behavior it follows occurring again in a similar situation in the future in response to this consequence.
When a desirable consequence (stimulus or event) follows a behavior and increases the likelihood of the behavior it followed happening again in a similar situation in the future.
The removal of an aversive stimulus or event that increases the likelihood of the behavior it followed happening again.
Mary and her sister were playing when Mary hit her sister. Mary's father then spanked her. Mary is now less likely to hit her sister in front of her father.
Receiving the "cold shoulder"
For punishment, the consequence has to be considered aversive by the majority of individuals.
I have plantar fasciitis, which is a foot condition that causes pain. Whenever it flares up and my foot hurts, I stretch my calf muscles and the pain goes away.
addition of a desired or pleasant stimulus
removal of an undesired or aversive stimulus or event
addition of an undesired or aversive stimulus or event
removal of a desired or pleasant stimulus or event
increase in the future likelihood of the behavior happening again in a similar situation in the future
decrease in the future likelihood of the behavior happening agin in a similar situation in the future
Last week, Kaitlin was watching television with her big brother, Winston. All of a sudden, Winston leaned over and punched Kaitlin in the arm. For doing so, Winston's mom took away his television privileges. Winston hasn't punched Kaitlin since.
Which of the following is/are possible outcomes of punishment if punishment is effective? (Choose all that are correct)
- The punished behavior declines in intensity.
- The punished behavior declines in frequency and intensity.
- The punished behavior declines in frequency.
To promote discussion in his classes, Dr. Anson gives extra credit for class participation. Last week, Chris tried to answer every question that Dr. Anson asked. In turn, Dr. Anson told Chris that if he asked one more question, he would not be able to earn extra credit for the next 5 minutes. Chris stopped trying to answer every question.
Which of the following is true?
Positive punishment is adding an aversive stimuli contingent on a behavior that reduces the likelihood of the behavior in the future.
Workers at the preschool taught Leonard and the other students correct color names. In order to encourage the children to use these names, they began giving objects and materials to the children only when the children had asked for the materials using the correct color name (e.g., Leonard's requests for a ball were not honored but his requests for a blue ball were). As a result of this procedure, Leonard and the other children used the correct color names when requesting objects and materials much more often than they had before.
Nicole is unassertive and her friends take advantage of her but she enjoys spending time with them. When she was assertive by telling a friend she was unable to help her out, her friend told Nicole she was no longer able to hang out with her that night. Nicole has not been assertive with that friend since then.
Mellanie wakes up at the exact same time every morning (5 AM). When she started waking up at this time, she used an alarm clock to wake herself up. Now, she has noticed her body wakes up naturally around 4:55 AM.
Dr. Arnold was working with a four-year-old boy with traumatic brain injury who had few movements and no speech since he had been in an automobile accident. Dr. Arnold began talking to the boy every day regardless of what the boy did as therapeutic procedure. At first the boy would smile only about twice a day, but as a result of Dr. Arnold talking to the boy his smiling increased to about once a minute.
None of these
When Colleen threw a temper tantrum last month, her mother made her sit in the time-out chair for 2 minutes. Since then, Colleen has not thrown another temper tantrum.
Marquis read a book that motivated him to decrease the amount of times he complains. After finishing the book Marquis went from complaining on average 50 times per day to twice a day.
None of these
Liam frequently acted up at school. Today he was talking loudly with the children at his table as the teacher was speaking. As a result, the teacher came over to his table and talked to him about how inappropriate his behavior was. The next day Liam was talking loudly to the other children at his table even more often than normal.
Which of the following are true about punishment? (Choose all that are correct)
- Punishment can decrease the future likelihood of undesired behaviors.
- Punishment can decrease the future likelihood of desired behaviors.
- The consequence will only be considered punishment if the organism finds the consequence aversive and the future occurrence of of the behavior decreases as a result of receiving the consequence.
Which of the following is/are true about the intention of punishment (as the term punishment is used in psychology)? (Choose all that are correct)
- The intention is to reduce or eliminate the frequency, intensity, or both the frequency and intensity of the behavior being punished.
- The intention is to reduce or eliminate the frequency, intensity, or both the frequency and intensity of the behavior being punished.
Giving money to a cause you despise
C'nee dislikes country music. Her best friend, Jazmyn, knows this and after C'nee insulted her, Jazmyn blared country music in her car. C'nee is now less likely to insult Jazmyn.
Addition of an aversive stimulus or event following a behavior that causes the future likelihood of that behavior occurring to decrease.
Removal of a desired stimulus or event following a behavior that causes the future likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future to decrease.
Process during which the desired behavior is being reinforced and when the organism engages in the undesired behavior, they are unable to be reinforced.
A stimulus or event that decreases the likelihood of the behavior it follows occurring again in a similar situation in the future in response to this consequence.
When the consequence of engaging in a behavior decreases the future likelihood of engaging in that behavior in a similar situation in the future.
Juan politely asked his mother if he could go outside to play with his friends and she yelled at him for interrupting her while she was doing work. The next time he asked her to do something he did not ask politely.
Wan was learning how to cook. She picked up a pot off the hot stove without wearing an oven mitt on her hand. She burnt her hand and since then has never picked up a hot pot off the stove without an oven mitt on her hand.
Linda and Joe are allowed to play on their iPads on the car ride to school (and at no other time) if they get ready on time in the morning. After this plan was implemented they started getting ready faster. What is this an example of? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Positive reinforcement
- Differential reinforcement schedule
Which of the following would lead to optimal/ideal operant conditioning? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Providing a quarter of a million dollars for running a marathon
- Teaching a behavior that the animal is evolutionary predisposed to engage in
-Providing the person's favorite dessert as a reinforcer
___ schedules of reinforcement typically have pauses in responding following reinforcement.
An experimenter is training a rat to lever press less frequently than it was, requiring the rat to not press the lever at all for a full minute before it will get reinforced for pressing the lever. If the rat presses the lever during this minute, the experimenter resets the time and the rat must go a full minute from that point in time before it will get reinforced for pressing the lever. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Differential reinforcement of low responding schedule
The manager of an apartment complex was extremely disappointed when her promotional deal of 1 month free rent did not result in more people signing leases with her complex. She then learned that a competing apartment complex had a promotional deal of 2 months of free rent and that many more people signed leases with that complex. Based on what you know from this course why do you think this happened?
The magnitude of the reward for the completing complex was much higher, thus making performance of the behavior (signing a lease) more likely.
An airline offers a frequent flyer program in which after people earn 25,000 miles, they get a free flight. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Every time Courtney gets a headache she takes Advil and her headache goes away within 20 minutes. What is this an example of? (Partial credit for each correct)
Continuous reinforcement schedule
The primary difference between differential reinforcement schedules and interval schedules is that in a differential schedule the behavior must happen during the specified interval of time to receive reinforcement whereas in an interval schedule the behavior has to happen after the specified interval of time to receive reinforcement.
A kindergarten teacher is creating a positive reinforcement program for her class in which she wants to increase the length of time they listen quietly to her reading during reading time (reading time lasts about 20 minutes). Which of the following would you recommend she use as the reinforcer?
Providing a token to the children who are listening quietly approximately every two minutes throughout reading time that can later be exchanged for five minutes of screen time.
Many parents are perplexed that their child's grades did not improve when they promised the child a large reward at the end of the semester if they improved their grades. What is the most likely reason why this frequently fails to change their child's behavior?
The time period between the behavior and the reinforcer is too long.
Juan is trying to teach his son his colors and numbers. He gives his son an M & M each time his son correctly labels the color of the M & M. He gives his son the number of M & M's he has in his hand if he has more than one in his hand and ask his son how many he has. His son learned his numbers much more quickly than his colors. What do you know from learning that might explain this?
The magnitude of the reward for correctly identifying the number was higher than for correctly identifying the color, so he acquired the behavior more quickly.
Jenna wants to reinforce her children every time they clean up their room independently. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Mrs. Wilson is trying to teach the children in her preschool class to raise their hand when they want her attention instead of interrupting her. She responds to the children who raise their hand and does not give any attention to children who try to interrupt her. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior schedule
The first lever press after 10 seconds results in food delivery, thereby increasing the rate of lever pressing. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
An experimenter is training a rat to lever press multiple times but only when the green light is on. If the rat presses the lever ten times during the 10 seconds the green light is on, the rat receives food, thereby increasing the rate of lever pressing while the green light is on. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Differential reinforcement of high responding schedule
Chris likes chocolate and gave himself chocolate after doing an hour of homework. Chris is now more likely to do his homework.
All of the following will help make reinforcement maximally effective except:
Using secondary reinforcers instead of primary reinforcers
Molly is trying to reduce how frequently her children fight with each other so she praises her children when they have not fought for 15 minutes in a row. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Differential reinforcement of other responding schedule
A door-to-door sales person who makes two consecutive sales and does not make another sale until knocking on 20 more doors is experiencing what type of reinforcement schedule?
A schedule of reinforcement is a schedule that determines...
...how often and/or when the behavior must be performed to receive reinforcement
A compound schedule of reinforcement is a schedule in which the contingency is an interval schedule of reinforcement and then a ratio schedule of reinforcement.
Coach Michelle believes that she should praise her players occasionally for making a basket during practice so she praises them approximately every 10th time they make a basket. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Babe Ruth averaged one home run in every 10 official at bats in the major leagues. The Babe's home run hitting pattern is best described as:
In fishing the number of times the person casts does not matter, the fish must be present to bite in order to get a fish. Thus, sometimes the fisher can catch a fish after one minute and other times it might take a very long time to catch a fish. Fishing is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
People go shopping on Black Friday for a chance to buy gifts at sale prices. Black Friday sales reinforce shopping on a _____ .
Differential reinforcement schedule
You do not like it when your friend complains about things they cannot control so you have decided to reinforce your friend when they talk about things they can control. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior schedule
Kiwi was extremely thirsty so he went into the kitchen and drank a big glass of water. He is now more likely to get himself a big glass of water when he is thirsty in the future.
Which of the following are important to obtain from a baseline measurement? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Information about what immediately follows behavior
- Information about when and where the behavior takes place
- Information about the frequency and intensity of the behavior
A person prefers hanging out with friends and wants to increase studying. Using Premack's principle [x] could be used to reinforce [y].
hanging out with friends ; studying
When shaping yourself or another organism, which of the following must you make sure to do? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Do not increase requirement for reinforcement too quickly
- Do not reinforce any one approximation for too long
- Make sure to reinforce small steps approximating the end goal behavior
Miguel wants to teach his dog to jump onto a stool, which is a trick his dog does not know. What is the best way to do this?
A behavior that was reinforced with a(n) ______ schedule of reinforcement is much more resistant to extinction than a behavior that was reinforced with a(n) ______ schedule of reinforcement.
intermittent ; continuous
Decrease in strength of conditioned response
Decrease in response that occurs in extinction of a classically conditioned response
Decrease in strength of previously reinforced behavior
Decrease in response that occurs in operantly conditioned response
Unpairing of CS and US
Unpairing that occurs in extinction of a classically conditioned response
Unpairing of previously reinforced behavior and reinforcement
Unpairing that occurs in extinction of an operantly conditioned response
Pippin was having fun playing at the playground with the other children. He threw sand in the air so his father took him out of the sand pit for 10 minutes. Pippin was less likely to throw sand in the air after that.
Which of the following are true about the implications of the impact of the consistency of rewards prior to extinction?
- It is important to remember if trying to extinguish an undesired behavior to not reinforce it after extinction has begun.
- If an organism is currently displaying an extinction burst and is reinforced for the behavior during the extinction burst, the reinforcement will strengthen the persistence of the behavior and may even increase the intensity of the behavior.
- If you want to make a behavior resistant to extinction, you should reinforce the behavior using intermittent reinforcement once the behavior is at the desired strength and frequency.
Animal trainers typically use ____ to teach the animals they are training to put on an impressive show. For instance, training a sea lion to stand up, cover his face with his left flipper, then cover his face with his right flipper, then clap his flippers together, and finally dance with the trainer.
Abby currently bites her nails 60 times per day but wants to stop biting them completely. She tends to bite her nails at least once every 10 minutes. Which of the following would you recommend?
Start by reinforcing herself with a DRO schedule for every 15 minutes she does not bite her nails.
_______ is when the organism experiencing extinction engages in other behaviors that used to result in the desired reinforcement .
Which of the following can shaping be used for? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Increasing the behavioral variation of a current behavior.
- Reducing the behavioral variation of a current behavior.
- Teaching a new behavior.
Eternity has decided she does not want her son to whine anymore. So she is planning on ignoring him whenever he whines. Eternity did not always reinforce her son for whining, she tended to give in to him when he whined approximately every 4 times. What is likely going to happen?
It will likely take a long time for Eternity to extinguish her son's whining.
Juno wants her children to stop fighting so she gives them a point for every 15 minutes they don't fight. They can exchange the points for things they like, such as screen time and candy. What is the best term for this example?
Huxley was trying to impress a girl and used a pickup line he had read on the internet that she found offensive. She slapped him in the face. Huxley has never used that pickup line again.
A Spanish teacher trying to teach their students to roll their "r" should use the procedure of _____.
An animal trainer trying to teach a dog to retrieve the morning newspaper from the front lawn should use the procedure of _____.
A parent trying to teach their child how to clean the dishes after cooking should use the procedure of _____.
A soccer coach trying to teach an athlete how to correctly kick the ball should use the procedure of _____.
Contingency management has been utilized to modify: (Partial credit for each correct)
- Decrease depressive symptoms
- Improve classroom behaviors
- Decrease drug use
- Increase self-care behaviors
When using a token economy all of the following are accurate except:
A shaping program must be built in
Wrigley enjoys chewing gum. She especially likes chewing the type of gum she was named after. She noticed recently that she feels happy when she sees a box of Wrigley chewing gum.
To promote class discussion, Dr. Anson gives extra credit for participation. Last week, Chris tried to answer every question that Dr. Anson asked. This week, Dr. Anson has been ignoring Chris. Eventually, Chris stopped trying to answer questions. What is this an example of?
Flower was passionate about the environment so she went to her congressional representative's office and spoke to them about why they should support a bill that would protect the environment. The people she spoke with were very kind and receptive to her message. She has reached out to them many times since then to share her opinions with her representative.
Put the following components of a contingency management program in the correct order.
1. Clearly defining the undesired behavior and obtaining initial information about it.
2. Conducting a baseline measurement.
3. Setting the contingencies and training the individual(s) responsible for providing the contingencies to do so.
4. Implementing the plan.
5. Modifying the plan as needed.
During shaping, the organism must engage in ____ so that the next approximation can then be reinforced.
During shaping, the organism must be reinforced for _____ of the end goal behavior, thus gradually requiring the organism to behave in closer and closer approximations to the ultimate desired behavior.
During shaping the individual doing the shaping must provide _____ for successive approximations.
The individual doing the shaping must use _____ to get rid of all previous approximations such that the organism being shaped continues to behave in closer approximations to the end goal behavior.
Which of the following is not accurate regarding contingency management?
It begins with the baseline phase, next is the assessment phase, then the implementation stage, and last is the contingency contracting stage.
Delara used to get whatever she wanted when she yelled at her sister. Two weeks ago her sister stopped giving in to Delara's yelling and as a result Delara stopped yelling at her sister. However, today Delara yelled at her sister to give her something. Why did Delara yell again today?
Kinzly was the star of her basketball team until she broke her arm. Since breaking her arm she is no longer able to make a free-throw shot.
None of these
When extinction is introduced in operant conditioning, the rate of behavior typically:
first increases then decreases
When using Premack's principle to engage in behavioral change, the dual benefit is that it _____ the desired behavior and _____ the undesired behavior.
increases ; decreases
Mario was speeding down the highway and was stopped by a cop. The cop gave Mario a speeding ticket. As a result of receiving the speeding ticket, Mario was less likely to speed when driving down the highway.
Which of the following is not a key influence on the effectiveness of punishment?
Most students have learned to raise their hand when they wish to speak in class. Thus, when they enter a new classroom they also raise their hand to speak. Thus, raising their hand to speak has _____ to other classroom settings. However, these same students do not raise their hand when they wish to speak in other settings because they have _____ that the behavior should not take place outside of the classroom.
generalized ; discriminated
If I attempted to reduce talking out of turn in class by removing a quiz point from the person who spoke for each time that person spoke, what would that be an example of?
Jaiquon dislikes nagging. Which of the following is likely an example of a negative reinforcer for Jaiquon?
When he finishes his late work his boss stops nagging him.
Dr. Tran argues that punishment will be most effective if all of the following are true except:
The punishment is administered within an hour of the behavior being punished.
You receive a ticket for speeding and are fined $500. What type of punishment is this?
Many adults learn that it is appropriate to use curse/swear words in some settings and not others. Thus, they only swear in the settings that they have learned it will be reinforced in. What is this an example of?
For punishment to be effective it should:
My children have learned to say "yes ma'am" to their teachers (in Mississippi) but not to their female relatives who live in Massachusetts. What best explains this?
They have generalized saying "yes ma'am" to all stimuli that are similar to the teacher who taught them to say it (all female teachers) and discriminate other stimuli (other females who live in Massachusetts) where being called "ma'am" is an insult.
Jamal dislikes loud noises. He recently went to a concert that was too loud for him so he left the concert and felt better. He is now more likely to leave concerts.
When Harlowe turned 18 he registered to vote. On Election Day, Harlowe made sure to go vote. After voting, Harlowe got a sticker and felt really good about himself. As a result he has voted in every election since then.
Randall always takes his shoes off when he enters his grandmother's home but never does so when entering other houses. Which of the following do you know are accurate?
- Entering his grandmother's home is an excitatory stimulus for removing his shoes.
- Randall discriminates between the stimuli of entering his grandmother's home and other houses.
Taylor and Mary are married. Every time they kiss Mary touches Taylor's back. Taylor recently noticed that when Mary touched her back she became sexually aroused.
Which of the following make punishment more effective? (Partial credit for each correct)
- An alternative to the punished behavior is being reinforced.
- More severe punishment.
Bill was just sent to sit by himself at the end of the hall doing nothing for 3 minutes after he hit his sister. This is an example of:
time-out from reinforcement
Ken dislikes being cold. He refused to put on a coat so his father turned on the air conditioning in the car and Ken got cold. Ken is now more likely to put on a coat when told to do so.
Which of the following are accurate with respect to the manner in which each factor influences the effectiveness of punishment? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Punishment is most effective when it is administered as immediately as possible after the behavior occurs.
- Punishment is most effective when it is contingent on the behavior being punished occurring.
A green traffic light for the behavior of continuing to press the gas peddle.
A red traffic light for the behavior of continuing to press the gas peddle.
Based on the relationship between consistency of punishment and its effectiveness, which of the following punishment schedules would be most effective in suppressing behavior?
Which of the following are accurate with respect to the manner in which each factor influences the effectiveness of punishment? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Punishment is most effective when the individual punishing is also simultaneously providing reinforcement for alternative (or incompatible) behavior to the behavior being punished.
- Punishment is most effective when the organism being punished is satiated on the reinforcer that the punished behavior is designed to obtain.
- Punishment is most effective when the punished behavior is not also receiving reinforcement.
- Punishment is most effective when the organism being punished is deprived of the desired outcome that punishment further deprives the organism of.
In some cases punishment may be the most humane way to suppress dangerous behavior and thus to not use it would be unethical.
A pigeon was trained to peck a disc for food reinforcers when a 16 cm card was presented to the pigeon and trained to not peck the disc when a 10 cm card was presented to the pigeon. Following the training the experimenters presented cards of various sizes to the pigeon and observed how much the pigeon pecked the disc. They found that the pigeon was most likely to peck the disc when an 18 cm card was presented. What phenomenon best explains this?
A peak shift
You like two TV shows and find enjoyment in watching each show every time you watch it. However, you like watching TV show A more than TV show B. According to the matching law how will you behave?
You will watch both shows but you will watch show A more often than show B.
Larkin dislikes loud noises. The other day his smoke alarm went off and there was no smoke so he took the batteries out. The alarm completely stopped. He is now more likely to take the batteries out of faulty smoke detectors. However, earlier this year, he asked his sister politely to turn down her music when it was too loud and she only turned it down a little bit. He still tries to ask her to turn her music down but he didn't learn to do this as well as he learned to take the batteries out of faulty smoke detectors; why?
Larkin was able to fully escape from the loud noise with the faulty smoke alarm but only partially able to escape from the loud music, thus he learned the escape behavior with the smoke alarm better.
The first time Harry Potter used a broom, he was able to fly like someone who had been flying his whole life.
None of these
Ebony dislikes hearing other people arguing. She is in the lunch room at work and two co-workers begin to argue. So Ebony takes her lunch, leaves the lunch room, and finishes her lunch at her desk (where she can no longer hear the argument). She is more likely to engage in this behavior again in the future. What two concepts does this illustrate?
Escape behavior, negative reinforcement
My mother loves it when I call her. After I call her, she frequently will send me a text thanking me for calling. As a result, I am more likely to call her.
When Dr. Kate had a new cat, the cat would pounce on the bed when she was sleeping. One day, this startled Dr. Kate and she accidentally kicked her off the bed. The cat never pounced on the bed when she was sleeping again.
Which of the following are accurate with respect to influences on escape behavior? (Partial credit for each correct)
- As the length of delay of reinforcement increases, the slower the acquisition of escape responses is and the less escape behavior is observed later on.
- The greater the reduction in the level of the aversive stimulus or event the organism is attempting to escape, the more escape behavior is learned.
- If escape behavior from similar situations has not been reinforced in the past, the organism is less likely to escape now.
Reggie likes to play basketball but dislikes cleaning his room. Using response deprivation theory, how should Reggie's parents get him to clean his room?
They should not allow him to clean his room at the level he prefers to engage in and then they can require him to play basketball in order to be allowed to clean his room.
If you wanted to use the knowledge from matching law to make sure you engage in studying more than watching Netflix, which of the following would help you do so? (Partial credit for each correct)
- Do not have the Netflix app on your device, so you do not see it when it is time to study.
- Make the choice in advance that you will study instead of watching Netflix.
- Give yourself a reinforcer for studying to bridge the delayed reinforcement of good grades later on.
An _____ response is a response that is aimed at ending an aversive experience and an _____ response is a response that prevents an aversive thing from happening either permanently or temporarily.
escape ; avoidance
In grade-school children, coloring is a higher probability behavior than doing arithmetic problems. If the opportunity to do arithmetic problems is restricted below its operant baseline, arithmetic problems should be able to serve as a reinforcer according to:
drive reduction theory
When attempting to extinguish an avoidance response, the number of exposures to the feared stimulus matters more than the duration of the exposure.
Tahlia is terrified of spiders and avoids going into the woods for fear of encountering spiders. What is the most recommended thing for her to do to extinguish this avoidance response?
Tahlia should go into the woods for an extended period of time until her anxiety goes away.
If a parent wants to extinguish their child's escape behavior of calling to be picked up from school whenever they are having a bad day, what would you recommend based on the knowledge from this course?
Do not allow the child to come home when they attempt to escape from school.
A person prefers playing video games and wants to increase cleaning their room. Using Premack's principle _____ could be used to reinforce _____.
playing video games ; cleaning their room
What best explains why humans tend to choose the immediate reinforcement of eating unhealthy food over the delayed reinforcement of being healthy?
DeShawn is walking home and notices someone he does not like is leaving a building up ahead but the person has not yet seen DeShawn. DeShawn turns down the closest street and walks a longer way home. What type of response is this?
active avoidance response
Reggie likes to play basketball but dislikes cleaning his room. Using Premack's principle, how should Reggie's parents get him to clean his room?
They should have him clean his room before he is allowed to play basketball.
Bob dislikes his boss and as a result ignored his boss's request for Bob to join him for lunch. What type of response is this?
passive avoidance response
Growing up my parents always drank strong coffee. Frequently I would get a hug when the smell of coffee was in the air. Now, every time I smell coffee, I feel a sense of comfort and love.
Mowrer believed animals who engaged in avoidance behaviors are not avoiding aversive events, they are escaping feared stimuli.
Under which conditions is the organism most likely to learn the avoidance response? (Partial credit for each correct)
- A rat who was classically conditioned to fear a red light because the red light was almost immediately followed by a shock. The rat later learned that it could avoid the shock if it pressed a bar when the light came on.
- A rat who can avoid a very strong shock if it presses a lever when the light comes on.
Fawaz dislikes feeling cold. He was out at soccer practice and it was much colder than he thought it was going to be so he put on a sweater. He warmed up quickly. The next time he got cold at soccer, he ran to grab his sweater and put it on.
Which of the following is accurate regarding how the intensity of the aversive event influences escape behavior? (Partial credit for each correct)
- The more aversive the event is, the more likely individuals are to escape from the event, making them less likely to help when the stimuli requiring help is very aversive.
- If the organism anticipates failure when interacting with an aversive event, the organism is more likely to escape from the aversive.
- The more aversive the event is, the more likely individuals are to escape from the event, making them more likely to escape from punishers that are very aversive.
Rosa was in a crowd of people and witnessed someone break their leg. The break was gruesome and Rosa knew the person would need a lot of help. She left the area and consoled herself that someone else would help. Based on the principles of learning, which of the following would best explain why Rosa left the area rather than helping?
As the aversiveness of an event increases, escape behavior is more likely due to the higher cost of engaging with the aversive event.
There is a _____ correlation between the intensity of the aversive event and escape behavior due to _____ cost of engaging with the aversive event as it becomes more intense.
positive ; higher
Tyler likes being in his class and he knows his professor has a policy that she can kick students out if they use their cell phone during class. Tyler used his cell phone during class and was surprised to find out his professor actually kicked him out so he missed half of class that day. Tyler has never used his cell phone in that class again.
Miles smokes every time he watches TV. To break this habit he watches TV for an extended period of time until he no longer smokes while watching TV.
Marla eats whenever she gets bored. To break this habit she reads something that she finds slightly boring but not so boring that she is prompted to eat. She gradually increases the intensity of the stimuli that she is exposing herself to until she is engaged in VERY boring activities and is no longer prompted to eat.
Incompatible stimuli method
Mika regularly bites her nails when studying. To break this habit, she is wearing gloves when she studies.
Which of the following best explains why you occasionally engage in less preferred activities instead of only engaging in your most preferred activity all the time.
Put the following components of learning an avoidance response in the correct order according to Mowrer's two-factor theory of avoidance learning.
1. Pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus until a classically conditioned fear response develops to the previously neutral stimulus.
2. Engaging in escape behavior from the conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned fear response.
3. Reduction in anxiety/fear as a result of no longer being in contact with the conditioned stimulus.
4. Increased likelihood to escape when in the presence of the conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned fear response.
If a dog learned to escape from the presence of their owner when the owner was drunk (because the owner typically beat the dog when they were drunk) and the owner is now sober and has not hit the dog in a long time, what will happen to the escape response?
Once the dog learns that the owner will no longer harm them, the anticipatory pain response will extinguish, and then the escape behavior will extinguish.
One of the major issues with Premack's probability-differential theory is that lower probability activities can sometimes reinforce higher probability activities.
Which of the following can nonreward cause? (Partial credit for each correct)
- an increase in the intensity of behavior when behavior is reinforced on a FR-2 schedule of reinforcement.
- frustration response to the experience of nonreward.
- a conditioned frustration response to the cues associated with nonreward.
____ states the animal learns to expect various results of responding or not responding to warning signals and behaves based on those expectations.
Cognitive expectancy theory
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