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US History chapter 16
Terms in this set (111)
men with a greed for greed and aggressive business practices
owned steamboat and railroad businesses
controlled most of the nation's shipping
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company
america's first billionaire
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
John Pierpont Morgan
The most prominent and powerful American investment banker in the late nineteenth century.
United States Steel Corporation
The first billion dollar American corporation
organized by J.P. Morgan
southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
Owner of an American Tobacco Company
controlled 90% of the nation's tobacco industry
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone
Inventor of light bulb and lightbulb
america's most versatile and prolific inventor
4 causes of america's industrial growth
1. growth of nation's population
2. innovative spirit of the time
3. sympathetic government
4. new sources of power besides water power
2 industries that dominated the southern economy after the civil war
tobacco and textiles
most important invention in communications in the 19th century
telephone by Alexander Graham Bell
a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.
favored high tariffs, hard money, and the spoils system--radical republicans
moderate republicans who favored reform
Pendleton Act of 1883
Bill that outlawed compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees and established the Civil Service Commission.
eliminated much of the spoils system
Civil Service Commission
created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees
Mongrel Tariff of 1883
failed attempt to reform the tariff
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed by Cleveland to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Outlawed monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as price fixing
McKinley Tariff of 1890
raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
4 issues that dominated American politics during the Industrial Age
1. civil service reform
2. government corruption
3. tariff revision
4. regulation of trusts
How did the Half-breeds and the Stalwarts compromise in choosing candidates for the republican presidential campaign of 1880?
they chose a halfbreed presidential nominee and a stalwart vice presidential nominee
how did republicans and democrats differ concerning the tariff in the 19th century
republicans favored protective tariffs
democrats favored low tariffs
3 provisions of interstate commerce act
1. railroad rates must be reasonable and just
2. railroad companies must publish all their rates and make financial reports
3. creation of the interstate commerce commission (ICC) to investigate alleged abuses and stop them
Why was the 51st Congress called the "Billion-Dollar Congress"?
for the first time in history the annual budget exceeded a billion dollars
Knights of Labor
earliest significant labor union
1869- a secret society of skilled and unskilled workers from various occupations
leader of the American Federation of Labor
1886- most famous example of labor violence
1892 strike against Carnegie's steelworks in Homestead, Pennsylvania
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
an authoritative command or order
advocates collective or government ownership of the means of production
an association formed by farmers in the 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
People's Party; political party formed in 1891 to advocate a larger money supply and other economic reforms
the unlimited production of silver coins
republican candidate in election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
What was the most enduring achievement of the American Federation of labor?
Standard of 8 hour work days
2 major labor strikes of late 1800s
What industry did most farmers blame for their low profits
What political party eventually emerged from the agricultural reform movement begun by the grange? What economic issue dominated this party in the 1890s?
the Populist (or People's) party
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
Immigrants from Southern and Eastern European countries and Asia arriving in the late 1800s
Where diverse racial and ethnic cultures blend to form a new and unified nation
Origin of Species
1859: Charles Darwin's book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
A British naturalist, renowned for his theories of evolution and natural selection.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies
Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)
Most popular writer of the day
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
A nineteenth-century literary movement that was an extension of realism and emphasized mans helplessness and struggle in the world
The Red Badge of Courage, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
The Call of the Wild
Premier writer of rags to riches stories
Luck and pluck, bound to rise, and tattered Tom
the desire for worldly possessions and the belief that only they can bring true happiness
Most widespread method of meeting the challenges of society with the gospel.
The conducting of city wide campaigns in huge auditoriums or large churches in major cities
Dwight L. Moody
America's most famous evangelist during the 19th century
Leader of urban evangelism movement
One of first to use music in his campaigns
D.L. Moody's song leader
"Moody in the South"
southern pastor of urban evangelism movement.
2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of living in the city in late 1800s
Advantages- more jobs and the services and attractions of the city were alluring
Disadvantages- rise of crime and prostitution and dangers of disease
3 popular leisure time activities in late 19th century
Ultimate reason for the success of the Moody campaigns
The moving of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of men
What is a gospel song
a sacred tune that is less formal than a hymn and has a more popular, easily sung melody
With what captain of industry do we associate oil refining? steel production? New south?
Oil refining- John Rockefeller
Steel- Andrew Carnegie
New south-James Buchanan
Widespread use of what invention spurred the growth of the mass produced clothing industry?
What crime in 1881 helped promote civil service reform by the passage of the Pendleton Act?
Charles guiteau shot president James Garfield at a railway station
In which presidential election in 1800s did a candidate win the electoral college but lose popular vote?
which of the two political parties embraced the free silver issue in 1896? who was their candidate for president in that election?
William jennings bryan
give 3 reasons that many americans opposed the New Immigration of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
1. americans feared immigrant workers would take jobs from americans
2. americans feared immigrants would lower the nation's standard of living and breed crime
3. americans feared immigrants would bring in new religions other than Protestantism
in what ways was the growth of american industry during the Gilded Age a benefit to the nation? what ways was it detrimental?
good- introduced new industrial and agricultural technologies; new ways of business were introduced; plenty of new inventions were made, light and communication
bad- lots of immigration led to shortage of jobs and living conditions became poor
what are some advantages of the spoils system?disadvantages?
good- President can choose anyone, rewards loyal followers jobs, gives people a chance for jobs
bad- corrupt employees, upsets people when they are not chosen or if they're fired
was federal regulation of the railroads, such as the interstate commerce act, necessary?
yes, because they had to come up with ways to keep everyone from breaking the law
Which captain of industry began his career as a Scottish immigrant working in a textile mill and later began involved in steel industry?
Which industry used vertical integration?
First major trust in the US
Standard Oil Company
Christian industrial leader
Most significant communication achievement in the gilded age
Stalwart Vice President who supported Halfbreed positions after he became president
What industry had so many major problems that the government had to pass the Interstate Commerce Act?
What government act was meant to be helpful but ended up hurting the nations economy?
What event discredited the Knights of Labor?
What was the main goal of the Populist party?
What philosophy argued that the government was best equipped to promote human progress?
Who was the most popular realist author in the gilded age?
Who was blinded at a young age and later became the most prolific gospel and hymn song writer?
19th Century leading evangelist
Republicans who favored high tariffs
What new political party was formed in the 19th Century?
Type of Darwinism that believes human progression comes better with cooperation than competition
What 2 new methods of writing began in the 19th Century?
Naturalistic and realistic
What was one of the main reasons republicans lost their first election in 28 years?
They elected a disreputable candidate
What was the goal of the Grange?
election year when republicans nominated halfbreed Garfield for president and stalwart Arthur for vice president
established an invention factory at Menlo Park, New Jersey
earliest significant labor union
Knights of Labor
election year when republicans nominated Blaine and democrats nominated Cleveland; democrats in their first election in 28 years
lived by the slogan "to do common thing uncommonly well"
hungarian immigrant who devised alternating current generators to give electrical power long range practicality
election year when republicans nominated Harrison and democrats nominated Cleveland; Harrison won
after Cleveland's inauguration, this plunged the nation into 4 years of its worst depression
Panic of 93
influential labor organization formed in 1881
American Federation of Labor
leader of Knights of Labor
the year the Sherman Antitrust Act was passed
Leader of the American Federation of Labor
the practice of a successful political party giving public office to its supporters.
3 of Edison's most influential inventions
incandescent light bulb
year Cleveland signed Interstate Commerce Act
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