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bio unit 3 quiz chapter 40
Terms in this set (24)
What is the relationship between the rate of exchange and the amount of material that must be exchanged to sustain life?
The rate of exchange is proportional to membrane surface area. The amount that is exchanged needs to be proportional to volume.
the four main tissue types.
the various shapes of epithelial cells
(1). cuboidal (like dice)
(2). columnar (like bricks on end)
(3). squamous (like floor tiles).
the various arrangements of epithelial cells
(1). simple (single cell layer)
(2). stratified (multiple tiers of cells)
(3). pseudostratified (a single layer of cells of varying length).
What does the term polarization mean with respect to epithelial tissue?
Epithelial cells connect to one another via their lateral membranes to form epithelial sheets that line cavities and surfaces throughout the animal body. Each plasma membrane domain has a distinct protein composition, giving them distinct properties and allowing directional transport of molecules across the epithelial sheet.
What are the three types of connective tissue fiber?
(1.) Collagenous fibers- provide strength and flexibility.
(2) Elastic fibers -stretch and snap back to their original length.
(3) Reticular fibers- join connective tissue to adjacent tissues.
What are the six major types of connective tissue?
(1). Loose connective tissue
(2). Fibrous connective tissue
(5). Adipose tissue
three different types of muscle tissue found in the vertebrate body and be able to
distinguish among them.
(1) Skeletal muscle (striated) consists of bundles of long cells called muscle fibers. Responsible for voluntary movements.
(2) Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities. Spindle-shaped cells that lack striations. Under the control of autonomic nervous system
(3) Cardiac muscle comprises wall of heart and is striated like skeletal muscle.
What are the two types of nervous tissue and what are their functions?
(1) Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses.
(2) Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
How does endocrine system signaling differ from that of the nervous system?
In the ES,
-signaling molecules called hormones are released into the bloodstream by endocrine cells.
-Only cells that have a receptor for a particular hormone respond. The hormone may affect a single location or multiple sites.
-Hormones are slow acting, but effects often long-acting.
The nervous system,
- does not transmit a signal throughout the entire body, but to a target cell via a specific pathway.
-The information conveyed depends on a signal's pathway, not the type of signal.
-Nerve signal transmission is very fast.
What is a conformer?
allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes.
what is a regulator
uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation.
describe in detail a negative feedback loop and all its components.
where the response reduces or damps the stimulus and returns the it to the set point or normal range.
positive feedback loop
occur in animals, but do not contribute to homeostasis. They amplify rather than reduce the stimulus, driving a process to completion.
What is thermoregulation?
the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
what is an endothermic animal
devote part of their metabolism to generate heat for the specific purpose of homeothermy - maintaing relatively constant internal temperature.
what is an ectothermic animal
they gain or lose heat from external sources. They tolerate much larger fluctuations in their internal temperatures
advantages of endothermic
decreased vulnerability to fluctuations in external temperature. Regardless of location endothermy maintains a constant core temperature for optimum enzyme activity.
disadvantages of endothermic
-a significant part of the energy intake is used to maintain the body temperature when it is cold.
- More food required
-Less energy from the food is used for growth so more food is needed to grow.
advantages of ectothermic
consume much less food than endotherms of equivalent size.
disadvantages of ectothermic
-They are less active in cooler temperatures and have to warm up in the morning sun before they are more active. This puts them at risk from predators.
-They are unable to increase respiration rates to generate internal heat.
What are the four principle processes by which an organism can exchange heat with its environment?
What are five general adaptations that help animals thermoregulate?
(2). Circulatory adaptations
(3). Cooling by evaporative heat loss
(4). Behavioral responses
(5). Adjusting metabolic heat production
What does the integumentary system deal with?
skin, hair and nails plays a key role.
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