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Terms in this set (34)
Mental structure that initiates and guides reactions and thus accounts for the consistency in one's behavior
For Allport, traits:
-Are the unit of measure capable of 'living syntheses.
-They were for him actual biophysical structures
Allport defined traits as:
a neuropsychic structure having the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide equivalent (meaningfully consistent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior. In other words, a trait causes a person to respond in similar environmental situations in a similar way.
In other words, a trait causes a person to respond in similar environmental situations in a similar way
Traits develop through a combination of:
innate needs and learning
Traits account for the consistency in:
People's traits organize experiences because:
people confront the world in terms of their traits
Traits will guide behavior because people can:
respond to the world in terms of their traits
Traits cannot be:
Allport theorized that traits provided ___________________________ that characterize a person's personality
For Allport, a person's traits create a possible range of:
responses to a given situation but are the nature of the situation itself that determines which of the potential behavior actually occurs
Allport believed that different situations, although similar, can:
arouse trait-related behavior to varying degrees
For that, Allport was an early interactionist (the one who believes that behavior always result from the combined influence of person variables and situation variables), not a pure trait theorist
Trait (general) are not habits (specific):
The trait of cleanliness synthesizes a number of specific habits, like brushing teeth, taking a shower
Traits (general) are not attitudes (specific):
the trait of aggressiveness synthesizes the aggressive reactions towards strangers, animals, world affairs, and the like, another difference is that attitudes imply evaluation and traits are responsible of behavior and cognitions whether or not evaluation is involved
-traits used to describe a group of individuals
-each trait can be possessed to almost any degree, still no to people react the same under exactly the same circumstance are those shared by several individuals
-when traits are used to describe a group
-later he changes it to personal disposition: the unique way that a particular trait manifests itself in the personality of a particular person.
-those possessed by a particular individual and also the way in which a particular trait, such as aggressiveness, manifests itself in a particular individual's personality
- "Ruling passion" that influences almost everything a person does.
-Only a few individual possess: Christlike, Dionysian, Faustian, Machiavellian, Quixotic, and Sadistic
-The 5 to 10 characteristics that summarize a particular person's personality.
-Those qualities about a person that you would mention in a letter of recommendation.
-Each person possess surprisingly few: Ex: might be punctuality, neatness, creativity and persistence
-More specific than cardinal or central dispositions but still more general than habits and attitudes
-May be a person's preference for certain types of food or clothing or may be a person's preference for flamboyant clothing or for sweet food
According to Allport, the term Psychophysical reminds us that:
personality is neither exclusively mental nor exclusively biological
The organization entails the operation of both body and mind, inextricably fused into a personal unit.
Allport was bother by the term character because:
it implied the moral judgment of a person, such as when it is said that a person has "good character".
Allport believed that character was a description of a:
person that includes a value judgement.
A person's character can be "good" or "bad" whereas a personality cannot
-One of the raw material from which personality is shaped.
-Is the emotional component of the personality
-Category into which one person can be placed by another person.
-To label a person as an "aggressive type" is to place him or her in a descriptive category based on bx
-Motive that existed once for some practical reason later exists for its own sake.
-In other words, a motive that was once a means to an end becomes an end in itself.
-Allport's most famous and controversial concept.
-In other words, past motives are not functionally related to present motives
Requirements for an adequate theory of motivation:
-Must recognize the contemporary nature of motives. "Whatever moves us must move us now"
-Must allow for the existence of several types of motives. "Motives are so diverse in type that we find it difficult to discover the common denominator"
-Must recognize the importance of cognitive processes
-Must recognize that each person's pattern of motivation is unique
Term used by Allport to refer to his motivational concept which he defined as "any acquired system of motivation in which the tensions involved are not the same kind of as the antecedent tensions from which the acquire system developed"
Allport believed that once these motives become part of the proprium they are pursued for:
their own sake and not for external encouragement or rewards
These motives become self-sustaining because they become part of the person
Types of functional autonomy
-Preservative functional autonomy: repetitious activities that we perform blindly, they once had a purpose but no longer.
-Propriate functional autonomy: individual's interest, values, goals, attitudes and sentiments.
Principle of organizing energy:
energy that once was used for survival can be changed into concern for the future when survival is no longer an issue
Principle of master y and competence
there is an innate need for healthy adult to increase their efficiency
Principle of propriate pattering
all motives must be compatible with the total self (The
Proprium) which is the frame of reference that determines what is worth pursuing in life and what is not
Although Allport believed that a religious orientation characterizes a healthy personality, however, embracing some forms of religion was beneficial and embracing other forms was harmful
-Superficial religion that is participated in for entirely selfish, practical reasons
-Seeks a higher meaning and purpose in life and provides possible answers to the many mysteries that characterize human existence