History Midterm Review Terms&Events
Terms in this set (54)
Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
Bunker (Breed's Hill)
British planned on attacking several areas that surrounded the city of Boston. The colonists found out about the attack. british attack with 1500 men. Known as the battle of Bunker Hill. The Americans are prepared, but don't have a lot of ammunition. Israel Putnam gives a command in which he believes will preserve ammunition. Famous Quote- "don't fire until you see the whites in their eyes"- the closer the person, the more white you can see. The Americans wait and then fire, and push the British back. The British attack a second time, and the Americans push them back again. The third time doesn't go well- they run out of amo. Americans didn't have bayonets (knife at the end of gun) so they used the rifles as bats and hit them with them. The British won cause they captured the area but the americans lost 400 and the British lost 1000. So the Americans felt that they won. The Americans then attack Boston to force the British out of the city and to retreat to canada
Era of Good Feeling
House of Burgesses
March 70, soldiers are bored and want more money so they are taking the colonists jobs, colonists and soldiers broke out into a fight over the jobs, the colonists provoked it, 5 people were killed, John Adams defended the soldiers- puts his career on the line. After this, the townshend and quartering acts were repealed except for the tax on tea
Election of 1824
Involved farmers that were unhappy because of the economy, farm prices went down and farmers were unable to pay loans and mortgages, and taxes went up- they were unable to pay and the banks took their farms. As a result, the rebellion attacked court houses.The Massachusetts militia put the rebellion down and its result was unsuccessful. They were pardoned because a lot of people thought he was right- started the convention for fixing the articles
issued by Roger Sherman of Connecticut, deals with representation issues.Since there are two parts of government, lets make one based on population and one equal.
Slavery- south wanted the slaves to be counted as people so they could get more representatives. Almost half the population was slaves in. 3/5 of slave population counted as people. Congress agreed not to interfere with the slave trade for the next 20 years- workable/ realistic. Also agreed to not pass export tax (cotton & tobacco), no foreign treaty would become affective unless ratified by 2/3 of senate
a pamphlet that attacked king George III. Thomas Paine is saying that it is common sense that we no longer owe our loyalty to the king. From January to July, over 500,000 copies of this pamphlet were sold.
Checks and Balances
President: the power to appoint cabinet officials, federal judges, ambassadors; each appointment must be ratified by 2/3 of the senate, only the congress can declare war, impeachment process- two parts involved- house and senate: can only be impeached for crime, - House needs 51% vote for impeachment- then officially accused
- If they get the 51% the senate holds a trial, 2/3 have to vote for removal
Congress: more directly linked to the people, least amount of checks.
- Must be passed by the house and senate (51%) and can then be vetoed by the president
- Members of house and senate can also be impeached
- If the president vetoes a bill, if they get a 2/3 vote from both houses, they can override the bill and pass it
Supreme Court: Can be impeached
- Appoints- president
- Ratified- 2/3 of senate
- They can only veto a law if a case comes before them
Treaty of Ghent
As the war continued, both side mutually agreed to end the war. In December 1814, the British and American met at a neutral sight in Belgium. Meet in the town of Ghent, which is why it is called the treaty of Ghent. This treaty restored pre-war conditions, any land that anyone took, went back to the original owners. The Americans thought they were the victors because they did what they wanted to do. The British stop selling weapons to the natives, seizing there ships, and impressing there soldiers. They had to fight this war to show there independence. It also strongly hurt any native American cause. Every once in a while There were people that thought that they treated the natives well and that the natives betrayed. No one stood up for the natives after this.
Trail of Tears
Removal Act of 1830
Marbury vs. Madison
Result of case= first major supreme court case- used Judicial Review: what power did they have?- the power to review a law and declare if its unconstitutional or not if a case comes before them.
- Marbury- the supreme court ruled that he was entitled to his judgeship and they agreed with him, however, before the case was heard, the Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary of 1801- law that created the position in the first place so ---- Marbury is entitled to a position that doesn't exist.
Result- he didn't get appointed. Supreme Court ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional- said the congress has no control over the judicial system- Whats the importance?- the first time the supreme court ruled a federal law unconstitutional
House of Representatives
Dispute with France Leading to XYZ:
Three Countries: U.S, France, England; U.S and England have made a treaty. France says what the hell? They are our enemy. France seize ships stealing cargo and end up taking 300 american ships. France is not getting along with the U.S now. Adams realizes that they don't have enough weapons and money to go to war with France. Instead they negotiate a treaty. Puts together a group of delegates- Charles Pinckney (Thomas's cousin) and John Marshall to negotiate a treaty.
When they get to France, the delegation tells them that if they want to meet the Foreign Minister, they will have to pay a 250 thousand dollar bribe. There were three men and didn't know there names so they labeled them X Y Z. When the American Public found out, they went wild, wanted war.
27 changes in 224 years since the constitution and 17 since the bill of rights. Congress or senate proposes a change and discuss/ debate it, if 2/3 of both houses agree to it, then they go to phase 2. Then goes directly to the people. If 3/4 of the states agree to the change they make the amendment. President has nothing to do with the amendment process
Embargo Act of 1807
Thomas Jefferson sees whats happening so he says they have to stop it. In 1807, the congress passes the Embargo Act- a ban on exporting products to other countries, thought it would hurt European forces and make them honor American neutrality, hurt America more than other countries- destroys there economy. In 1809, Jefferson admits that the biggest mistake he made was signing this bill, eventually repealed.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Both of these acts were passed by congress around the same in 1789, passed in order to prepare for a possible war with France. Alien Act: stated that in order to become a citizen, they changed the residency from 5-14 years that you had to live in the country before you became a citizen. Also said that the president could deport any immigrant they thought was a threat. Sedition- no one speak out against the government - Passed both of these cause they wanted to hurt the republicans. When you become a citizen you can vote, the immigrants would vote republican. Didn't want them voting republican. - direct violation of 1st amendment
a refusal to buy goods
Brought up by James Madison. COnsisted of three branches of government: judicial, legislative, and executive. A bicameral congress: house/ senate. House would be elected directly by the people and senate by the house. Supreme Court: 7 yr term elected by house and President: 7 yr term elected by house
Olive Branch Petition
July 75, a peace offering- olive branch. Stated that they wanted King George III to repeal the intolerable acts. George III rejected it an made the prohibitory act- too bad were going to punish you.
Kentucky and Virginia believed these acts were immoral and unconstitutional- they were going to nullify (void) the acts. The only way you can nullify a law, is in your borders, inside Virginia and Kentucky, they don't exist anymore. - very dangerous to U.S. In 1800, the issue disappeared because
During the winter of 1774 into 1775, the Massachusetts protestors formed there own militia, became known as..