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a tongue retractor and a mirror

laryngeal mirror

a small, round dental mirror that is place at the back of the oral civity to look down an individuals vocal folds


the complex, dynamic product of vocal fold vibration that allows us to vocalize and produce voice


the rate of vocal fold vibration expressed as cycles per second or hertz


the actual vibration of the air within the pharyngeal column, which impacts the quality of voice


the psychological or perceptual equivalent of frequency


the physical measurement of sound pressure- reported in dB


1-the amount of airflow- 2 the amount of resistance to the airflow by the vocal folds

spasmodic dysphonia

broken and breath quality


A voice disorder-umbrella term


loss of voice


vocal folds with inadequate tension,

vocal abuse

chronic or intermittent overuse or misuse of vocal appratus

neurogenic voice disorder

neurological problem causes voice disorder...ex: parkinsons

contact ulcers

voice disorder caused when excessive forces or acid reflux creates sores on the vocal tissue or cartilages

vagus nerve

What CN is associated with the sensory innervation of • Laryngopharynx?

adduction paralysis

when the vocal fold is paralyzed in an abducted position

laryngeal dystonia

dystonia-abnormal function- of vocal cords, causes hyperadduction during speech


movement of the speech mechanism (articulators: mandible, lips, tongue, and soft palate) to produce the sounds of speech;

frequency of vf for women


freq of vf for men


glottal fry

"Creaky" voice register. Lower limit of pitch range (30-80Hz), minimal airflow and minimal amount of pressure. Folds are closed for 90% of cycle.

contact ulcers

voice disorder caused when excessive forces or acid reflux creates sores on the vocal tissue or cartilages

laryngeal dystonia

dystonia of vocal cords, causes hyperadduction during speech-vocal tremors, movement patterns of the laryngeal muscles are common


concer, tobacco use, alcohol, nutritional,

Velopharyngeal inadquacy

imperfect closure of the port0because of iatrogenic problems from surgery, allergies, neuromuscular impairment, cleft palate,

Phonotory quality-

hard glottal attack, glottal fry, breathy phonation, spasticity, horseness,


abnormally tensed muscle tone

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