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Ch 5 Testing Your Knowledge (Adv. Bio)
Terms in this set (13)
Which best describes the structure of a cell membrane?
a. proteins between two bilayers of phospholipids
b. proteins embedded in a bilayer of phospholipids
c. a bilayer of protein coating a layer of phospholipids
d. phospholipids between two layers of protein
e. cholesterol embedded in a bilayer of phospholipids
Consider the following: chemical bonds in the gasoline in a car's gas tank and the movement of the car along the road; a biker car the top of a hill and the ride he took to get there. The first parts of these situations illustrate____, and the second illustrate______
a. the first law of thermodynamics....the second law
b. kinetic energy...potential energy
c. an exergonic reaction... an endergonic reaction
d. potential energy...kinetic energy
e. the second law of thermodynamics... the first law
A plant cell placed in distilled water will ____; and animal cell placed in distilled water will_____
b. become flaccid...shrivel
c. become flaccid...be normal in shape
d. become turgid...be normal in shape
e. become turgid...burst
The sodium concentration in a cell is 10 times less than the concentration in the surrounding fluid. How can the cell move sodium out of the cell?
a. passive transport
c. active transport
e. any of these processes
c (only active transport can move solute against a concentration gradient)
The synthesis of ATP and ADP and
a.is an exergonic process
b. involves the hydrolysis of a phosphate bond
c. transfers a phosphate, priming a protein to do work
d. stores energy in a form that can drive cellular work
e. releases energy
Facilitated diffusion across a membrane requires____and moves a solute___its concentration gradient
a. transport proteins...up(against)
b. transport proteins....down
d. energy and transport proteins...up
e. energy and transport proteins...down
What are aquaporins? Where would you expect to find them?
they are water transport channels that allow for very rapid diffusion of water through the cell membrane. They are found in cells that have high water transport needs, such s blood cells, kidney cells, and plant cells
How do the two laws of thermodynamics apply to living organisms?
energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be transferred and transported. Plants transform the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in organic molecules. Almost all organisms rely on the products of photosynthesis for the source of their energy. In every energy transfer or transformation, disorder increases as some energy is lost to the random, motion or heat
What are the main types of cellular work? How does ATP provide the energy for this work?
the work of cells fall into three main categories: mechanical, chemical, and transport. ATP provides the energy for cellular work by transferring a phosphate group to a protein (movement and transport) or to a substrate (chemical)
Why is the barrier of the activation energy beneficial for organic molecules? Explain how enzymes lower EA
energy is stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules. The barrier of EA prevents these molecules from spontaneously breaking down and releasing the energy. When a substrate fits into an enzyme's active site with an break, or the active site may orient two substrates in such a way as to facilitate the reaction
How do the components and structure of cell membranes relate to the functions of membranes?
cell membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The bilayer creates the hydrophobic boundary between cells and their surroundings (or between organelles and the cytoplasm). The proteins perform the many functions of membranes, such as enzyme action, transport, attachment, and signaling
Sometimes inhibitors can be harmful to a cell; often they are beneficial. Explain.
Inhibitors that are toxins or poisons irreversibly inhibit key cellular enzymes. Inhibitors that are designed as drugs are beneficial, such as when they interfere with the enzymes of bacterial or viral invaders or cancer cells. Cells use feedback inhibition of enzymes in metabolic pathways as important mechanisms that converse resources.
Explain how each of the following food preservation methods would interfere with a microbe's enzyme activity and ability to break down food: canning(heat), freezing, pickling (soaking in acetic acid), and salting
heating, pickling, and salting denature enzymes, changing their shapes so they do not fit substrates. Freezing decreases the kinetic energy of molecules, so enzymes are less likely to interact with their substrates
This set is often in folders with...
Ch. 1 and 2 for ADV. Honors Bio
Ch 4 Advance Honors
Ch. 4 Testing Your Knowledge (Adv Bio)
Ch. 5 Adv. Bio
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