Ch.4 K.1

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define; culture
the body of material traits, customary beliefs, and social forms that together distinct traditions of a group of people
what are the three part of the definition of culture?
the visible elements that a group possesses and leaves behind for the future (its material traits); language and religion; the social forms that maintain values and protect artifacts (ethnicity and political institutions)
Two locations have similar cultural beliefs, objects, and institutions because people bring along their culture when they migrate. Differences emerge when two groups have _______ __________.
limited interaction
define; habit
a repetitive act that a particular individual performs (wearing jeans everyday to class)
define; custom
a repetitive acts of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of a group (many students wearing jeans to class)
A custom is therefore a ______, that has been widely adopted by a group of people
habit
define; folk culture
traditionally practiced primarily by small homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas
define; popular culture
found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
each cultural element has what three items?
distinctive origin, diffusion, and distribution
Geographers observe that folk culture and popular culture typically differ in their processes of ______, __________, and ____________.
origin, diffusion, distribution
____________ culture is based on rapid simultaneous global connections through communications systems, transportation networks, and other modern technology.
popular
________ diffusion makes frequent changed in popular culture.
rapid
______ culture is more likely to vary from place to place at a given time
folk
________ culture is more likely to vary from time to time at a given place
popular
popular culture is becoming more dominant for people ...
with the income to have access to it
the disappearance of local folk culture _______ _____ diversity in the world
reduces local
the dominance of popular culture can also threaten the quality of the ____________
environment
culture and the physical environment are ____________
interrelated
define; built environments
each cultural group takes particular elements from the environment into its culture and in turn constructs landscapes
Folk culture derived from local ______ _______
natural elements
what is popular culture less likely to reflect?
concern for the sustainability of physical conditions
what is popular culture more likely to modify?
the environment in relation with global values
All people must consume ____, wear ________, and find _______, but different cultural groups do so in distinctive ways
food, clothing, shelter (daily necessities)
leisure activities include ______ and __________
arts (and) recreation
Each cultural group has its own definition of meaningful ____ and stimulating __________
arts (and) recreation
Each cultural element has a unique _______ distribution, but in general
spatial
___________ is more extensive for popular culture than for folk culture
distribution
what two factors help explain the different spatial distribution of popular and folk culture?
the process of origin and the pattern of diffusion
culture originates at a _______ (a center of innovation)
hearth
folk culture often has _______________ hearths
anonymous
anonymous hearths originated from anonymous ________, at _______ dates, through ___________ originators
sources, unknown, unidentified
folk culture may also have multiple hearths, originating independence in ___________ locations
isolated
Popular culture is typically traceable to a ________ person or corporation in a particular place.
specific
popular culture is often a product of _________ countries, especially in North America and Europe
developed
where is hip hop said to originate and by who
the Bronx of New York City's and by DJ Kool Herc
why is the hearth of hip hop significant? (violent street gangs, arson, and other crime)
the music reflects the conditions in the neighborhood they are living
Popular music and other elements of popular culture, such as _____ and ________, arise from a combination of advances in __________ technology and increased ______ time.
food (and) clothing; industrial, leisure
Industrial technology permits the _______ ____________ of objects in large quantities (iPods, T-shirts, pizzas).
uniform reproduction
leisure time has increased as a result of the widespread change in the labor force from ____________ work to _____________ jobs
agricultural, manufacturing
Folk culture is transmitted from one location to another relatively slowly and on a small scale, primarily through __________ diffusion (migration).
relocation
Popular culture typically spreads through a process of _______________ diffusion, diffusing rapidly and extensively from hearths or nodes of innovation with the help of modern communications.
hierarchical
Western dance music diffused rapidly from the United States to ________
Europe
Techno music was heavily influenced by soul, gospel, and ultimately ________ folk music
African
House music was heavily influenced by ___ ___ that emerged in New York and other urban areas,
hip hop
Hip hop music diffused from the Bronx to nearby _______________
Philadelphia
the distribution of popular culture is influenced by the ability of people to access the _________ _________
material elements