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Honors Chemistry-Covalent Bonding and Properties (test #5)
Terms in this set (24)
A force that holds groups of 2 or more atoms together and makes then function as a single unit; results from a mutual attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms
Define chemical bond
A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
In general, what determines whether atoms will form chemical bonds?
The valence electrons
What determines the type of bond an atom will undertake?
The way the electrons are configured; relative electronegativity
Define ionic bond
The electrical attraction between cations and anions; electrons transfer from one atom to another
Define covalent bond
The sharing of electron pairs between atoms
What depicts the atoms' ionic or covalent character?
The difference in the elements' electronegativites
The greater the difference in electronegativty, the more _____ character a bond will have
Ionic; smaller difference would result in a more covalent bond
Define polar-covalent bonds
A covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for shared electrons
Define nonpolar-covalent bonds
A covalent bond in which the bonding of electrons are shared equally
In a polar-covalent bond, which direction does the electron cloud flow?
It flows with the electrons
*example: In a hydrogen-chlorine bond, chlorine has a higher electronegativity, so it is pulling in electrons. Thus, the electron cloud has a higher density near the chlorine atom
The bigger the electronegativity value, the more ________ charge an atom will have
Elements bond in order to achieve what?
Stable electron configuration (noble gas)
Define bond energy
The amount of energy needed to break a bond; kj/mol
Define bond length
The distance between the nuclei of bonded atoms; measured in pm (picometers)
Describe the relation between bond energy and bond length
As the bond length decreases, the bond energy increases and vice versa
Describe ionic bonding
.The bond that results from the electrostatic attraction between positively and negativity charged ions
.Usually occurs between a metal and nonmetal
.The resulting particle is referred to as a formula unit
.Most ionic compounds are crystals
Describe covalent bonding
.The bond that results from electrons being shared by the nuclei of different atoms that have a mutual attraction for the shared electrons
.Usually occurs between 2 nonmetals or a metalloid and a nonmetal
.The resulting particle is referred to as a molecule
.non-polar covalent: electrons are shared equally between atoms
.polar covalent: electrons are not shared equally, the electrons are drawn towards the atom with the higher electronegativty
No bond is strictly 100%, all bonds share some _____/_______ character
Electronegativity differences can be used to predict bond type; in general:
E.N difference: 0-0.3
Predicted Bond: NP-C (2 nonmetals)
E.N difference: 0.4-1.7
Predicted Bond: P-C (2 nonmetals,
mettaloid and nonmetal, or metal and nonmetal)
E.N difference: 1.8-3.3
Predicted Bond: Ionic (metal and nonmetal)
What is the symbol for a postive & negative charge on a polar covalent bond?
δ⁺ / δ⁻
What are the diatomic molecules?
H₂, N₂, O₂, F₂, Cl₂, Br₂, and I₂
Describe covalent compounds
Attractions between molecules are not as strong as ionic; tend to have lower metling and boiling points compared to ionically bonded particles, many are gasses at room temp.
Lewis Dot Structure Exceptions
1. If a lewis dot structure has been drawn correctly and there are left over electrons, place them in the central atom
2. Some elements can have an incomplete octet (less than 8 electrons to be stable) These elements are B, stable with 6; Al, stable with 6; and Be, stable with 4
*halogens are not usually a center atom,
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