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Animal Behavior Exam 2
Terms in this set (52)
Describe Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT) and overview the example given with the crows and oystercatchers in class.
Optimal foraging theory is the theory that animals will forage in the most efficient manner, maximizing benefits and minimizing costs.
Crows breaking whelks - the crows rejected all the whelks that weren't large, suggesting that foraging was in an optimal manner.
Oystercatchers - some large mussles were impossible to open, so oystercatchers chose smaller in order to optimize foraging.
Does optimal foraging result in reproductive success?
Yes! Greater caloric intake helps reproductive outcome.
Describe the marginal value theorem.
The marginal value theorem states that an animal foraging in a patch of prey will remain in that patch until the rate of energy gained no longer exceeds the potential energy intake for the environment as a whole.
Essentially, the amount of energy to find new food must exceed the food energy for an animal to move.
What is risk-sensitive foraging?
Strong pressure to avoid predators that forces consumers to forage in a sub-optimal manner
ex) wolf introduction in yellowstone on deer foraging
Describe niche partitioning and what species was given as an example?
Where individuals in a species use the environment differently to minimize competition
Killer whales (hunt in groups differently)
What is frequency dependent selection?
When the rarer of two hereditary attributes confers higher fitness, maintaining both in a population
ex) think left-jawed fish and right-jawed fish
What is a conditional strategy?
An inherited mechanism that allows individuals to alter their behavior adaptively for different conditions
What did Dr. Burrows study? What were her findings?
Studied humpback whale foraging strategies in Alaska.
Found that humpback whales cooperatively foraged and had role specialization
What is an adaptation?
A trait that spreads by natural selection; adaptive value = contribution a trait makes to inclusive fitness
Give reasons for why traits are not adaptive...
1. Failure of appropriate mutation to occur.
2. Pleiotropy - a gene has more than one effect on development
3. Coevolution - individuals interact in ways that affect eachothers fitness
What was the black-headed gulls example in the pwrpoint for adaptive traits...
predator distraction hypothesis. Inside colony had decreased predation attempts.
What is the comparative method (adaptive)
If a trait is adaptive in a certain environmental context, it may have been derived or lost in other lineages.
ex) Kittiwakes moving from ground to cliff for decreased predation, losing mobbing behavior
Convergent and divergent evolution
Conv - distinct ancestry, shared behavior
Div - Shared ancestry, divergent behavior
What is the dilution effect?
The probability that one animal will be preyed upon decreases the larger the group
What are some examples of social defenses?
Increased vigilance, ability to hide behind others (selfish herd), communal defense (bees, ants, etc.)
What is crypsis? What example was given?
The ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection.
ex) peppered moth color and resting location
What is conspicuous behavior? What example was given?
Organisms making themselves more detectable due to a signal advertisement
ex) monarch butterflies tasting bad
ex) stotting in gazelles (jumping)
What is optimality theory?
Adaptations have greater benefits-to-costs ratios than the alternatives they have replaced.
Ex) northern bobwhite
Describe Ideal free distribution (IFD) theory
The # of animals that aggregate in a habitat is proportional to the amount of resources in the environment. Achieve equal fitness.
Ex) blackcap warbler
What were the example costs and benefits of territorial behavior?
Benefit - improved fitness
cost- earlier death
Describe the payoff asymmetry hypothesis
Individuals value the same resource differently. Residents usually derive greater payoff by maintaining control.
What is the dear enemy effect? What example was given?
More energy expended settling disputes with new neighbors than old (dear enemies)
ex) kangaroo rat
Differences between migration and dispersal? What were the costs and benefits of each?
Migration - form of dispersal where animals move away from and subsequently return to same location annually. Need more weight for energy storage, reproductive organs atrophy, alter metabolism.
Benefit - longer days to forage for songbirds, water availability for zebras in serengeti, avoid temps etc.
Dispersal - movement of individuals from their birth site to their breeding site or between sites.
(BENEFITS - more mating chances, costs energy and predation risk)
Are conditional migratory strategies viable?
YES! European blackbirds change based on conditions year to year.
Define sexual selection. Define the example of birds given
Natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics of the opposite sex
Ex) Bowerbirds and their dances
Why do males court females?
Eggs are larger and more costly to produce than sperm.
Why do females often invest more in parental care?
Eggs are expensive, offspring carry genes. Males w/ decreased future reproductive options means increase in their costs too.
What is operational sex ratio? What direction is it typically skewed?
Ratio of sexually active males -> females.
Typically male-based due to differences in sizes of eggs and sperm.
What example was given for sex role reversal?
Male empid fly females display and compete for males bearing nupital gift of insect prey.
What are the results of male-male competiton?
Increased body size, weapons, heirarchies
THINK NARWHAL TUSKS
Describe conditional strategies. Whats an example?
The ability of disadvantaged individuals to switch to alt tactics resulting in higher payoff than being dominant. (THINK GAMMA MALES)
Do the benefits of mate guarding outweigh the costs? What example was given in class?
Saychelles warblers during fertile seasons.
What is female mate choice? Whats a good example?
Females looking for certain characteristics that identify fertility.
Some females can identify parasite load and general health based on mating displays.
More carotenoids in zebra finches indicate healthier mates (different colors)
What is runaway selection?
Trait keeps increasing because it is continuously selected for
What is chase-away selection?
Males exploiting sensory bias of female, tempting females to mate despite providing no material or genetic benefits
What is sexual conflict?
Two sexes having conflicting optimal fitness strategies regarding reproduction.
What must be true for male monogamous mate assistance to exist? What example?
The benefits of helping must compensate for lost mating opportunities.
What is female enforced male monogamy?
A female blocks partner wanting to bang other animals, monopolizing his parental assistance.
Where is male monogamy common? Where is it not common.
Common in birds, rarer in mammals.
Does social monogamy equate to sexual monogamy?
What is polyandry?
A female has more than one sexual partner.
What are the costs of polyandry? The benefits?
Increased chance of disease from mates, risk of predation searching for mates, time and energy costs
(heterozygote advantage in genes!)
Fertility insurance, good genes, genetic compatibility.
What is a lek?
An area where males display for females, no food, extremely dominant males
What is the hotspot hypothesis in respect to leks?
Males cluster where they are more likely to encounter females.
Submales group here too, with chances of mating.
Give some examples of uneven parental care
Mouth brooding cichlid with kids in mouth
Waterbug taking care of eggs and fanning
How do mexican brown-tail bats recognize their offspring? Same in cliff swallows -p.
Pheromone id, noise, etc. close breeding is required for offspring viability.
Why do adoptions take place?
Benefit of not killing potential offspring outweigh chances of killing real genetic offspring.
describe brood parasitism. Why dont parents just abandon?
An animal that is not genetically related taking over nesting location and fighting for resources, often by killing other offspring. EX) american cowbird. This trait has evolved multiple times.
Abandoning nests could mean abandoning their own offpsring. Not worth!
Explain the mafia example of the female brown-headed cowbird.
More predation if cowbird egg is removed. BREAK YA KNEES IF YOU REMOVE MY EGG
What is parental favoritism? Explain the example given in class.
An organism giving preference to a certain sex during a time of increased foraging. Red mason bees have females when food is good, since they require more food!
Why is siblicide common?
Why produce a second egg if it is destined to die? Insures that the offspring killing others lives to full health.
Explain the red coots example given in class.
Parents will invest more in redder red coots since they have higher chances of survival.
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