9 terms

Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication

This set is intending to clarify the complex assortment of enzymes involved in DNA replication.
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Helicase
Uses the hydrolysis of ATP to "unzip" or unwind the DNA helix at the replication fork to allow the resulting single strands to be copied.
Primase
Polymerises nucleotide triphosphates in a 5' to 3' direction. The enzyme synthesises RNA primers to act as a template for future Okazaki fragments to build on to.
DNA Polymerase III
In charge of synthesizing nucleotides onto the leading end in the classic 5' to 3' direction.
DNA Polymerase I
In charge of synthesizing nucleotides onto primers on the lagging strand, forming Okazaki fragments. However, this enzyme cannot completely synthesize all of the nucleotides.
Ligase
This enzyme is in charge of "gluing" together Okazaki fragments, an area that DNA Pol I is unable to synthesize.
Telomerase
Catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres; the enzyme includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments.
Nuclease
This enzyme is in charge of excising, or cutting out, unwanted or defective segments of nucleotides in a DNA sequence.
Topoisomerase
This enzyme introduces a single-strand nick in the DNA, enabling it to swivel and thereby relieve the accumulated winding strain generated during unwinding of the double helix.
Single Strand Binding Proteins
Responsible for holding the replication fork of DNA open while polymerases read the templates and prepare for synthesis.
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