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Serous Membrane (serosa)

composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue; occur in pairs

Cutaneous Membrane

Skin and part of epithelial membrane


Membrane around the heart; pair layers of serous membrane is parietal and visceral


Serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organ


External covering of the body; insulates and cushions internal organs and protects from damage; essential because it keeps H2O and other precious molecules in the body; also keeps H2O out

Uppermost layer of skin, made out of keratin and cornified, or hardened, in order to prevent H2O loss from body

Kerantinocytes (keratin cells)

cells that take up most of the epidermis and produces keratin; they are fibrous protein that makes epidermis a protective layer


pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black; produced by melanocytes found in the stratum basale

when skin is exposed to sunlight, which produces more of these pigments, tanning occurs


a strong, stretchy envelope that helps to hold the body together; is abundantly suupplieed with blood vessels that it plays a role in maintaining body temperature and homeostasis

*there are two major regions which are papillary and reticular areas*

Reticular layer

the deepest skin layer; contains blood vessels, sweat, and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors call Pacinian corpuscles; phagocytes are found here and act to prevent bacteria that have managed to get through the epidermis from penetrating any deeper in the body

Papillary layer

the upper dermal layer of skin, it's uneven and has fingerlike projections from its superior surface called derme papillae


a yellow cast; abnormal yellow skin tone usually signifies a liver disorder in which excess bile pigments are absorbed into the blood, circulated throughout the body, and deposited in body tissues

Skin appendages

include cutaneous glands, hairs and hair follicles, and nails; each of these appendages plays a unique role in maintaining homeostasis

Sebaceous gland

(oil glands), are found all over the skin, except on the palms of the namds and the soles of the feet and has a product, sebum, which is a lubricant that keeps the skin soft, moist, and prevents hair from being brittle

Sweat glands

(Sudoriferous glands) are widely distributed in the skin; has two types: eccrine and apocrine


A noncontagious disease whose main symptom is gray or silvery flaky patches on the skin which are red and inflamed underneath when scratched

Rule of Nines

a method that divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9 percent of the total body surface area, plus additional area surrounding the genitals representing 1 percent of body surface area

1st degree burn

a partial-thickness burn that it only the epidermis is damaged, becomes red and swollen, temporary discomfort, and heals about 2-3 days without special attention (ex: sunburn)

2nd Degree burn

partial-thickness burn that involve injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis; skin is red, painful, and blisters appear; Regrowth (regeneration) of the epithelium can occur because of sufficient # of epithelial cells that are still present

3rd Degree burn

full-thickness burn that destroys the entire thickness of skin; the burned skin appears blanched (gray-white) or blackened, and since the nerve endings in the area are destroyed, the burned area is not painful; regeneration is not possible and skin grafting must be done to cover the underlying exposed tissues

Basal cell carcinoma

least malignant and most common skin cancer; relatively slow-growing, and metastasis seldom occurs before it is noticed

Malignant Melanoma

a cancer of melanocytes, accounts for only 5 percent of skin cancers, but its incidence is increasing rapidly and its is often deadly; can develop on any pigment or from pigmented moles; usually appears as a spreading brown to black patch that metastasizes rapidly to surrounding lymph and blood vessels

ABCD rule

a way to recognize melanoma: A-Asymmetry- if two sides of spot or mole don't match, B-Border irregularity- borders of lesion is not smooth but exhibit indentations, C-Color- spot contains areas of different colors, D-Diameter- spot that's larger than 6 mm diameter (size of pencil eraser)


membrane surrounding the lungs; there's two: parietal and visceral

Aprocrine sweat gland

are largely confined to the axillary and genital areas of the body; their ducts empty into hair follicles, their secretion contains fatty acids and proteins; milky or yellowish color and is odorless until a bacteria lives on the skin and use proteins and fats to grow, in which creates bad odor


scalelike modification of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof or claw of other animals

connective tissue

connects body parts; found everywhere in the body; most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types

epithelial tissue (epithelium)

is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body; functions include, protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion

Muscle tissue

highly specialized to contract, or shorten, to produce movement

horny cells (cornified)

the shinglelike dead cell remnants, completely filled with keratin; in the outermost layer called the stratum corneum

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