157 terms

Bio 111 Exam 3 Study Set

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A
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?

A) stroma of the chloroplast

B) thylakoid membrane

C) cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast

D) interior of the thylakoid (thylakoid space)

E) outer membrane of the chloroplast
D
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of

A. electron transfer in photosystem II.

B. reducing NADP+.

C. electron transfer in photosystem I.

D. splitting water molecules.

E. chemiosmosis.
E
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

A) CO₂ and glucose
B) H₂O and O₂
C) ADP, Pi, and NADP⁺
D) electrons and H⁺
E) ATP and NADPH
E
If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO₂ synthesized with heavy oxygen (¹⁸O), later analysis will show that all but one one* of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the ¹⁸O label. That one is

A) 3-phosphoglycerate.

B) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).

C) glucose.

D) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP).

E) O₂.
D
A reduction in the amount of NADP+ available in plant cells in the light will ultimately result in

A. a decrease in the rate of cyclic electron flow.

B. an increase in the rate of the Calvin cycle.

C. an increase in the rate of oxygen production.

D. a decrease in the rate of linear electron flow.
D
The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during
A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.
C
In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from

A) the stroma to the photosystem II.

B) the matrix to the stroma.

C) the stroma to the thylakoid space.

D) the intermembrane space to the matrix.

E) the thylakoid space to the stroma.
D
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?

A) thylakoid membrane only
B) plasma membrane only
C) inner mitochondrial membrane only
D) thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membranes
E) thylakoid membrane and plasma membrane
B
Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?

A) harvesting of light energy by ATP

B) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain

C) generation of molecular oxygen

D) extraction of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water

E) passing electrons to the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain
E
Which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of photosynthesis?

A) NADP is produced.

B) NADPH is reduced to NADP⁺.

C) Carbon dioxide is incorporated into PGA.

D) ATP is phosphorylated to yield ADP.

E) Light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a.
B
A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?

A) red and yellow
B) blue and violet
C) green and yellow
D) blue, green, and red
E) green, blue, and yellow
A
Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?

A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP⁺ to the light reactions.

B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.

C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO₂ to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.

D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.

E) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.
A
The NADPH required for the Calvin cycle comes from

A) reactions initiated in photosystem I.
B) reactions initiated in photosystem II.
C) the citric acid cycle.
D) glycolysis.
E) oxidative phosphorylation.
NADPH
What compound provides the reducing power for the Calvin cycle reactions?
B
What is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?

A) They have a direct, linear relationship.

B) They are inversely related.

C) They are logarithmically related.

D) They are separate phenomena.

E) They are only related in certain parts of the spectrum.
B
Reduction of oxygen to form water occurs during

A) photosynthesis only.
B) respiration only.
C) both photosynthesis and respiration.
D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.
E) photorespiration only.
ATP and NADPH
What are the products of linear electron flow?
Calvin Cycle only
Reactions that consume CO2 take place in the
A
Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?

A) stroma of the chloroplast
B) thylakoid membranes
C) matrix of the mitochondria
D) cytosol around the chloroplast
E) thylakoid space
E
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

A) use ATP to release carbon dioxide

B) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide

C) split water and release oxygen

D) transport RuBP out of the chloroplast

E) produce simple sugars from CO2
B
In an oxidation-reduction reaction, the reducing agent

A. gains electrons and loses potential energy.

B. loses electrons and loses potential energy.

C. loses electrons and gains potential energy.

D. gains electrons and gains potential energy.
C
As a result of an oxidation-reduction reaction the oxidizing agent

A. loses electrons and loses potential energy.

B. loses electrons and gains potential energy.

C. gains electrons and gains potential energy.

D. gains electrons and loses potential energy.
D
The complete reactions of cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen (C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy) result in which of the following?

A. reduction of C6H12O6 and oxidation of CO2

B. reduction of CO2 and oxidation of O2

C. oxidation of O2 and reduction of H2O

D. oxidation of C6H12O6 and reduction of O2
D
Which of the following statements about NAD+ is true?

A. NAD+ is oxidized by the action of dehydrogenase enzymes.

B. NAD+ is the source of electrons used in oxidative phosphorylation.

C. NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH.

D. NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis.
B
In animal cells, glycolysis occurs in the

A. inner mitochondrial membrane.

B. cytosol.

C. nucleus.

D. outer mitochondrial membrane.

E. mitochondrial matrix.
B
The ATP produced in glycolysis is generated by

A. photophosphorylation.

B. substrate-level
phosphorylation.

C. chemiosmosis.

D. oxidative phosphorylation.
electron transport.
E
The ATP produced in the citric acid cycle is generated by

A. chemiosmosis.

B. photophosphorylation.

C. oxidative phosphorylation.

D. electron transport.

E. substrate-level phosphorylation.
E
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the NAD+ molecule becomes

A. oxidized.
B. hydrolyzed.
C.redoxed.
D.dehydrogenated.
E.reduced.
B
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high-energy foods?

A. They have a lot of oxygen atoms.

B. They have a large number of electrons associated with hydrogen.

C. They are easily reduced.

D. They have few nitrogen atoms.

E. They have a lot of carbon atoms bound together by single covalent bonds.
C
The complete oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration occurs through which of the following sequence of metabolic reactions?

A. glucose → pyruvate oxidation → glycolysis → electron transport chain → citric acid cycle

B. glucose → citric acid cycle → glycolysis → pyruvate oxidation → electron transport chain

C. glucose → glycolysis → pyruvate oxidation → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

D. glucose → pyruvate oxidation → citric acid cycle → glycolysis → electron transport chain

E. glucose → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → pyruvate oxidation → electron transport chain
100%
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?

38%
0%
2%
10%
100%
0%
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the electron transport chain?

0%
2%
10%
38%
100%
B
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are

A. 2 NAD+, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.

B. 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.

C. 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP.

D. 6 CO2, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.

E. 6 CO2, 2 pyruvate, and 30 ATP.
D
Why is glycolysis described as having an energy investment phase and an energy payoff phase?

A. Early steps consume energy from ATP and NADH and later steps store an increased amount of energy in ATP.

B. Early steps consume energy from ATP and NADH, and later steps store an equal amount of energy in ATP and NAD+.

C. Early steps consume energy from NADH, and later steps store an increased amount of energy in ATP and NADH.

D. Early steps consume energy from ATP, and later steps store an increased amount of energy in ATP and NADH.

E. Early steps consume energy from ATP and NADH, and later steps store an increased amount of energy in ATP and NADH.
B
A glucose molecule is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but together these two processes yield only a few molecules of ATP. What happened to most of the energy that the cell obtains from the oxidation of glucose?


A. It is stored in pyruvate.

B. It is stored in NADH and FADH2

C. It was lost as heat.

D. It is stored in the carbon dioxide and water molecules released by these processes.

E. It is stored in the ATP that was formed by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
D
Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?


A. The citric acid cycle produces most of the ATP that is subsequently used by the electron transport chain.

B. The citric acid cycle depends on the availability of NAD+, which is a product of glycolysis.

C. The oxidation of compounds by the citric acid cycle requires molecular oxygen.

D. The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.

E. The citric acid cycle oxidizes glucose to carbon dioxide.
Water
The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?
C
Which of the following statements about the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP is correct?

A. The energy for production of ATP from ADP comes directly from a gradient of electrons across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

B. Oxygen participates directly in the reaction that makes ATP from ADP and P.

C. The chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that the electron transport in the inner mitochondrial membrane be coupled to proton transport across the same membrane.

D. The chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP occurs only in eukaryotic cells because it occurs in mitochondria.

E. Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis requires oxygen.
C
Which one of the following statements about the redox reactions of the electron transport chain is correct?


A. The electron transport chain takes electrons from water and gives them to oxygen.

B. The redox reactions of the electron transport chain are directly coupled with the synthesis of ATP.

C. The redox reactions of the electron transport chain are directly coupled to the movement of protons across a membrane.

D. NADH gains electrons in the initial reaction of the electron transport chain.

E. The oxidation of NADH is directly coupled to the reduction of oxygen to water.
D
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

A. mitochondrial intermembrane space

B. cytosol

C. mitochondrial outer membrane

D. mitochondrial inner membrane

E. mitochondrial matrix
E
During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the highest energy level?

A. FADH2
B. FAD
C. NAD+
D. ATP
E. NADH
B
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to

A. serve as an acceptor for released carbon, forming CO2.

B. serve as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.

C. donate high energy electrons to the electron transport chain.

D. combine with acetyl CoA, forming pyruvate.
B
Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?

A. NADH → oxidative phosphorylation → ATP → oxygen

B. citric acid cycle → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen

C. electron transport chain → citric acid cycle → ATP → oxygen

D. citric acid cycle → ATP → NADH → oxygen

E. citric acid cycle → FADH2 → electron transport chain → ATP
C
What is the source of the oxygen used to form water in the complete reactions of cellular respiration?

A. carbon dioxide (CO2)
B. pyruvate (C3H3O3-)
C. molecular oxygen (O2)
D. glucose (C6H12O6)
A
In chemiosmosis, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + i to ATP?

A. energy released from movement of protons down their electrochemical gradient through ATP synthase

B. energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation

C. energy released from dehydration synthesis reactions

D. energy released as electrons flow through the electron transport system
D
The energy used to pump hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space is derived from

A. splitting water to form oxygen and protons.

B. ATP hydrolysis.

C. decreasing the pH in the mitochondrial matrix.

D. redox reactions in the electron transport chain.
C
Where in mitochondria is the enzyme ATP synthase localized?

A.electron transport chain
B.mitochondrial matrix
C.inner membrane
D.outer membrane
4
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation during the complete oxidation of a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration?

2
4
8
30-32
Glucose
What carbon sources can yeast cells metabolize to make ATP from ADP under anaerobic conditions?
E
Which of the following occur(s) in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

A. citric acid cycle

B. oxidative phosphorylation

C.oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D.fermentation and chemiosmosis

E.glycolysis and fermentation
B
Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?

A. the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B. glycolysis

C. oxidative phosphorylation

D. chemiosmosis

E. the citric acid cycle
D
Yeast cells grown anaerobically can obtain energy by fermentation, which results in the production of

A. ATP, CO2, and acetyl CoA.

B. ATP, CO2, and lactate.

C. ATP and lactate.

D. ATP, CO2, and ethanol.

E. ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.
D
Which of the following tend(s) to release energy?

A. formation of water from

B.hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

C.dehydration reactions

D.endergonic reactions
C
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic energy?

A. light flashes emitted by a firefly

B. the muscle contractions of a person mowing grass

C. a molecule of glucose

D. water rushing over Niagara Falls
anabolic reactions
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?

digestion
catabolic reactions
anabolic reactions
diffusion
hydrolysis
C
Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the second law of thermodynamics?

A. If the entropy of a system increases, there must be a corresponding decrease in the entropy of the universe.

B. Energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

C. Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.

D. If there is an increase in the energy of a system, there must be a corresponding decrease in the energy of the rest of the universe.

E. Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment.
B
For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?

A. The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.

B. The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.

C. Organisms grow by converting energy into organic matter.

D. The energy content of an organism is constant.

E. Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Catabolism
The cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones is defined as

anabolism.
dehydration.
catabolism.
catalysis.
metabolism.
endergonic
A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is best described as
C
A system at chemical equilibrium

A. releases energy at a steady rate.

B. consumes or releases energy at a steady rate, depending on whether it is exergonic or endergonic.

C. can do no work.

D. consumes energy at a steady rate.
C
Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?

A. The reaction goes only in a forward direction: all reactants will be converted to products, but no products will be converted to reactants.

B. A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reaction to proceed.

C. The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.

D. The products have more total energy than the reactants.
B
A number of systems for pumping ions across membranes are powered by ATP. Such ATP-powered pumps are often called ATPases, although they don't often hydrolyze ATP unless they are simultaneously transporting ions. Because small increases in calcium ions in the cytosol can trigger a number of different intracellular reactions, cells keep the cytosolic calcium concentration quite low under normal conditions, using ATP-powered calcium pumps. For example, muscle cells transport calcium from the cytosol into the membranous system called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). If a resting muscle cell's cytosol has a free calcium ion concentration of 10-7 while the concentration in the SR is 10-2, then which of the following is the most likely mechanism by which the muscle cell ATPase maintains intracellular calcium concentrations?

A. The ATPase opens a calcium ion channel that allows calcium ions to diffuse back into the SR along the concentration gradient.

B. The ATPase pumps calcium from the cytosol into the SR against the concentration gradient.

C. The ATPase pumps calcium from the outside of the cell into the SR against the concentration gradient.

D. The ATPase transfers i to calcium ions so that they may diffuse into the SR.
C
When chemical, transport, or mechanical work is done by an organism, what happens to the heat generated?

A. It is used to store energy in the form of ATP.

B. It is used to power yet more cellular work.

C. It is released to the environment.

D. It is used to synthesize ADP.
A
Which of the following statements concerning catabolic pathways is true?

A. They provide energy that can be used to drive cellular work.

B. They build up complex molecules such as protein from simpler compounds.

C. They combine molecules into larger, more energy-rich molecules.

D. They are endergonic.
A
ATP hydrolysis in a test tube releases only about half as much energy as ATP hydrolysis in the cell. Which of the following is the best explanation for this observation?

A. ATP hydrolysis in a test tube occurs under standard conditions; in the cell, reactant and product concentrations differ from standard conditions.

B. ATP hydrolysis in cells is catalyzed by enzymes, which releases more energy than the uncatalyzed reaction in a test tube.

C. ATP hydrolysis in a cell produces different products than ATP hydrolysis in a test tube.

D. Cells maintain higher internal pressure, which speeds up the reaction rate.
C
A catabolic pathway may be which of the following?

A. a set of reactions that form covalent bonds between
molecules to store free energy

B. a set of coupled reactions that are endergonic

C. a set of reactions that release energy that can be used to drive cellular work

D. a set of reactions that combine monomers into larger, more energy-rich polymers
C
The mechanism by which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is most precisely described as

A irreversible inhibition.

B. noncooperative inhibition.

C.feedback inhibition.

D. metabolic inhibition.
A
Some of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive inhibitors of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these competitive inhibitors. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant viruses?

A. in or near the active site

B. in regions of the enzyme that determine packaging into

C. the virus capsid
at a cofactor binding site

D. at an allosteric site
C
Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following?

A. allosteric inhibition

B. saturation of the enzyme activity

C. competitive inhibition

D. denaturation of the enzyme
B
A mutation that results in a single amino acid substitution in the active site of an enzyme

A. may alter the G for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme.

B. may change the substrate specificity of the enzyme.

C. may alter the ability of a noncompetitive inhibitor to bind to the enzyme.

D. may alter the ability of an allosteric regulator to alter enzyme activity.
D
The active site of an enzyme is the region that

A. is inhibited by the presence of a coenzyme or a cofactor.

B. binds noncompetitive inhibitors of the enzyme.

C. binds allosteric regulators of the enzyme.

D. binds substrates for the enzyme.
B
Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?

A. Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by reducing the rate of reverse reactions.

B. Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier.

C. Enzymes change the equilibrium point of the reactions they catalyze.

D. Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by making the reaction more exergonic.
B
In most exergonic reactions, the reactants capable of interacting to form products typically must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the

A. entropy of the reaction.

B. activation energy of the reaction.

C. energy conservation of the reaction.

D. chemical equilibrium of the reaction.
Anabolism
The cellular process of synthesizing large molecules from smaller ones is defined as
RNA nucleotide
ATP is an example of which an?
B
Cooperativity is a form of allosteric activation in which

A. completion of one step in a metabolic pathway is required before a subsequent step can occur.

B. binding of a substrate molecule to one active site in a multisubunit enzyme stimulates the binding of substrate molecules to the active sites of other subunits.

C. the product of a metabolic pathway serves as a competitive inhibitor of an early enzyme in the pathway.

D. all of the enzymes in a metabolic pathway are contained within a single multienzyme complex.
A
Which of the following is an example of cooperativity?

A. binding of a molecule to one subunit of a tetramer, which promotes faster binding to each of the other three subunits

B. binding of the end product of a metabolic pathway to the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the pathway

C. binding of an ATP molecule along with another substrate in an active site

D. the product of one enzyme in a metabolic pathway serving as the substrate for the next enzyme in the pathway
A substrate
Please use the following information to answer the question(s) below.

A series of enzymes catalyze the reactions illustrated in the following metabolic pathway: X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.


What is substance X?
C
Please use the following information to answer the question(s) below.

A series of enzymes catalyze the reactions illustrated in the following metabolic pathway: X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.


With respect to the enzyme that converts X to Y, substance A functions as

A. a competitive inhibitor.

B. an intermediate.

C. an allosteric inhibitor.

D. the substrate.

E. a coenzyme.
No
Are most chemical reactions at equilibrium in living cells?
A
Vioxx and other prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are potent inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. High substrate concentrations reduce the efficacy of inhibition by these drugs. These drugs are

A.competitive inhibitors.

B.noncompetitive inhibitors.

C.allosteric regulators.

D.prosthetic groups.

E.feedback inhibitors.
B
In an analogy between a building and a living body, is the crew installing plumbing in the building acting in catabolism or anabolism? Is their work exergonic or endergonic?

A.catabolism; exergonic

B.anabolism; endergonic

C.catabolism; endergonic

D.anabolism; exergonic

E.It depends on what floor of the building is being built.
E
A tree capturing energy from the sun and making sugars is an example of what law, and why?

A.first law of thermodynamics, because it is changing the form of energy

B.second law of thermodynamics, because some energy is lost as heat

C.first law of thermodynamics, because matter is being turned into energy

D.second law of thermodynamics, because the synthesis of sugar is spontaneous

E.A and B
C
If you were studying a new kind of fungus, and you wanted to know how much energy was immediately available to power metabolism in the fungus, you would measure the concentration of what molecule?

A.sucrose
B.glucose
C.ATP
D.lipids
E.DNA
B
If you took a bacterium living in a stream with 20°C water and placed it in a hot spring with 50°C water, what might happen?

A.It would thrive, with more thermal energy to speed reactions.

B.It would die because its enzymes would malfunction at high temperature.

C.It would grow as usual, since temperature has little effect on bacteria.

D.It would die because faster reactions would deplete cellular ATP.

E.B and D
A
Invented by the ancient Inca, ceviche is a seafood dish cooked by applying acid, such as citrus juice, to raw fish. How does this work?

A.by denaturing protein with lowered pH

B.by raising the temperature of the fish as the acid enters its cells

C.by releasing stored enzymes

D.by breaking down ATP

E.by speeding growth of acid-loving bacteria
D
If a mechanic tries to change as many tires as possible in a short time by bringing car after car into the garage before previously repaired cars can be removed, eventually no more work can be done until the fixed cars are removed. What enzyme function is this like?

A.cooperativity

B.denaturation

C.optimal temperature

D.feedback inhibition

E.noncompetitive inhibition
B
Why is the breakdown of ATP useful for powering cellular processes?

A.It is an endergonic reaction that can be coupled with other reactions.

B.As an exergonic reaction, it releases energy to spare.

C.It takes up excess free energy that interferes with metabolism.

D.It helps warm cells and speed metabolism.

E.It generates ADP for the synthesis of RNA.
C
Which statement about glycolysis is true?

A.It splits water.

B.It uses oxygen.

C.It occurs in the cytoplasm.

D.It makes the most ATP compared to the two other steps.

E.It makes lipids.
B
Which statement about the citric acid cycle is true?

A.It occurs during the movement from the cytosol through the mitochondrial membranes.

B.It makes ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation.

C.It makes the most ATP compared to the two other steps.

D.It occurs in the cytoplasm.

E.It splits glucose.
D
What do cells require to sustain high rates of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions?

A.functioning mitochondria

B.oxygen

C.oxidative phosphorylation of ATP

D.NAD+

E.All of the above are correct.
C
ATP synthase at the inner mitochondrial membrane makes ATP by which of the following methods?

A.allowing Na+ to move down its electrochemical gradient

B.allowing H+ to move against its electrochemical gradient

C.facilitated diffusion of H+

D.active transport of H+

E.active transport of Na+
D
During intense exercise, muscles lack sufficient oxygen, so what will the muscles use?

A.alcoholic fermentation

B.the citric acid cycle

C.only glycolysis, with NAD not utilized

D.lactic acid fermentation

E.chemiosmosis
D
Catabolism involves _____ to _____ energy.

A.reduction; release


B.oxidation; store

C.reduction; store


D.oxidation; release


E.Not enough information is provided to decide
B
If you were asked to examine a container in which you were told that glycolysis was being performed in a cell-free extract, you would test for the presence of lots of

A.ADP.

B.pyruvate.

C.glucose.

D.sucrose.

E.acetate.
D
Which compound, if found in an aerobically respiring mitochondrion, would be the greatest surprise?

A.ADP

B.H+

C.FADH2

D.NADPH

E.none of the above
E
In the absence of oxygen, what process can a cell use to extract energy from food?

A.anaerobic respiration

B.alcoholic fermentation


C.lactic acid fermentation

D.B or C

E.A-C
C
Where did the carbon found throughout the body of a plant originate?

A.soil

B.water

C.air

D.organic fertilizer (manure, detritus)

E.light
E
What color(s) of light will drive photosynthesis by green plants most efficiently?

A.red only

B.yellow only

C.green only

D.blue only

E.red and blue
B
How are the light reactions and the Calvin cycle connected?

A.The light reactions provide ATP to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle provides NADPH for the light reactions.

B.The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle returns ADP, phosphate, and NADP+ to the light reactions.


C.The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle returns reduced sugars to the light reactions.

D.The light reactions provide NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle provides RuBP to the light reactions.

E.The light reactions provide RuBP to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle returns G3P to the light reactions.
D
A flask of duckweed in water is placed under a bank of lights on a 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle, next to a control flask containing only water. Assuming no change in water temperature, which flask will have the lowest dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, at what time?

A.DO will always be the same in the two flasks.

B.DO will always be higher in the flask with duckweed than in the control.

C.DO will always be lower in the flask with duckweed than in the control.

D.The flask with duckweed will have the lowest DO at the end of the dark cycle and the highest DO at the end of the light cycle.
E
Where might you find oxygen-producing, chlorophyll-based photosynthesis?

A.an ocean shore where seaweeds grow

B.a pond full of cyanobacteria

C.a farm field full of lettuce plant

D.a chloroplast

E.All of the choices are correct.
Thylakoids
If you wanted to design a very specific chemical to target the light reactions of photosynthesis, where should that chemical be designed to go, most specifically?
C
If you placed a leaf in a chamber filled with helium gas and shone light on it, ____ would decline in concentration over time inside the leaf and ____ would increase.

A.glucose; carbon dioxide

B.ATP; carbon dioxide

C.carbon dioxide; oxygen

D.water; oxygen

E.oxygen; ATP
C
Which is least necessary for most photosynthesis on Earth?

A.water

B.oxygen


C.hydrogen sulfide


D.ATP

E.chlorophyll
B
Which light bulb would be least useful for growing plants indoors?

A.a white light bulb

B.a green light bulb

C.a red light bulb

D.a blue light bulb

E.A and B
E
Which of the following accurately describes an action spectrum?

A.the set of wavelengths that lead to frogs hibernating in the fall

B.the set of wavelengths that lead to oxygen production during photosynthesis

C.the set of wavelengths that cause microbes to swim toward a light

D.the set of wavelengths that lead to starch production

E.All of the answer choices are correct.
E
If you wanted to describe, using specific data, howa leaf uses the energy of absorbed photons, which of the following would you measure?

A.fluorescence

B.photosynthetic production

C.heat production

D.A and B

E.A-C
C
If you were studying a chloroplast and found a photosystem floating in the stroma, and this photosystem included chlorophylls a and b as well as protein, why would be unusual?

A. Photosystems usually contain one chlorophyll or the other, but not both.

B. Photosystems are found in the cytoplasm, not chloroplasts.


C. Photosystems are found in the thylakoid membranes, not the stroma.

D. Photosystems usually do not include protein, just chlorophyll.'

E. None of the choices is correct.
A
If you were studying the biochemistry of photosynthesis and found that GTP and NADH were produced after chlorophyll absorbed red and blue light in the thylakoid membranes, what would be unusual about this process?

A.Photosyntheis produces ATP and NADPH.

B.Photosynthesis uses green light—that's why chloroplasts are green.

C.Chlorophyll fluoresces light, not absorbs it.

D.Chlorophyll is found in the stroma, not the thylakoids.

E.None of the choices is correct
E
When studying a plant which, based on oxygen production, is actively photosynthesizing, you find very little glucose. Where did it all go?

A.cell walls

B.starch grains

C.to make other sugars

D.for cellular respiration

E.All of the answers are correct.
E
Which item(s) are provided to you by photosynthesis?

A.oxygen in your latest breath

B.starch in the toast you ate for breakfast

C.chitin in fungal cell walls in the steak sandwich you ate for lunch

D.paper in your textbook

E.A, B, and D
1
How many chromosomes are in the middle cell?
M
At what part of the cell cycle would you see a chromosome that looks like this? Give your reasons.
Anaphase
At what time will the chromosome shown be split into two chromosomes, each the same as the other?
1:2
If you were counting chromosomes in the gametes and the somatic cells of a giraffe, what should be the ratio of the number in the former to the number in the latter?
Centromere
If you were asked to label a model of a chromosome, the central portion of a replicated chromosome, which looks like the central part of an X, would be labeled
C
If you saw a cell with condensed chromosomes lined up in the center of the cell, you would know that the cell was in

A.prophase

.B.prometaphase.

C.metaphase.

D.anaphase.

E.telophase.
A
If you saw a cell with chromosomes condensing, you would know that the cell was in

A.prophase.

B.prometaphase.

C.metaphase.

D.anaphase.

E.telophase.
D
If you saw a cell with chromosomes separating but not yet at the poles, you would know that the cell was in

A.prophase.
B.prometaphase.
C.metaphase.
D.anaphase.
E.telophase.
B
If asked to guess what part of the cell cycle a eukaryotic cell from an adult organism was in, given no other information, you would be most likely correct if you guessed

A.prophase.
B.interphase.
C.G1 phase.
D.anaphase.
E.S phase.
Kinetochores
If you wanted to create a drug to stop chromosomes from lining up during mitosis, but otherwise not disturb the overall process, you would want to disrupt
A
What forces the chromosomes to line up at the center of the cell in metaphase?

A.equal pulling on each kinetochore in a joined pair of sister chromatids

B.pushing by mitochondria

C.displacement by the cleavage furrow

D.repulsion by the spindle

E.None of the answers is correct.
C
To disrupt cytokinesis in a plant cell, you need to disrupt

A.all microtubules.

B.the contractile ring.

C.microtubules near the cell plate.

D.all microfilaments.

E.spindle microtubules.
B
If studying a bacterial cell dividing, you would need to read most about

A.cytokinesis.

B.binary fission.

C.microtubules.

D.microfilaments.

E.nuclear envelope.
C
If you had a chemical to block ______, cells would stall during the cell cycle and have twice the normal amount of DNA in the presence of this chemical.

A.the G1 checkpoint

B.the M checkpoint

C.the G2 checkpoint

D.A or B

E.Cells cannot stall in the cell cycle.
A
If you had a chemical to block ______, cells would stall during the cell cycle and never synthesize DNA.

A.the G1 checkpoint

B.the M checkpoint

C.the G2 checkpoint

D.A or B

E.A or C
E
Without checkpoints during the cell cycle, what might happen?

A.mitosis before DNA synthesis is done

B.DNA synthesis without sufficient biochemical preparation

C.insufficient cells in G0 for normal functioning

D.daughter cells with the wrong number of chromosomes

E.All of the answer choices are correct.
C
During interphase, the genetic material of a typical eukaryotic cell is __________.

A. attached to microtubule spindle fibers

B. transported through the nuclear pores

C. dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin

D. dispersed in the cytoplasm as long strands of chromatin
B
You would know a dividing cell was a plant cell rather than an animal cell if you saw that __________.


A. it had formed a cleavage furrow

B. it had formed a cell plate


C. chromatin was condensed into chromosomes visible through a microscope

D. it had microtubules

E. it had two pairs of centrioles during prophase
Cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm
sister chromatids
Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S subphase of interphase.
Mitosis
Centrosomes seperate
23
When not engaged in the processes leading to cell division, how many chromosomes from your mother are present in the nucleus of each of your somatic cells?
Nerve Cell
You would be unlikely to see which of the following human cells dividing?
Prophase
In a human skin cell that is going through the cell cycle, when do the centrosomes separate?
10
A cell in G2 of the cell division cycle contains 20 chromatids. How many centromeres are present in this cell?
Virchow
The person credited with the axiom, "Every cell from a cell" is __________.
E
Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of _______

A) DNA and carbohydrates.
B) DNA and RNA.
C) condensed DNA only.
D) DNA and ribosomes.
E) DNA and proteins.
A
Humans produce skin cells by mitosis and gametes by meiosis. The nuclei of skin cells produced by mitosis will have_______

A) twice as much DNA as the nuclei of gametes produced by meiosis.

B) four times as much DNA as the nuclei of gametes produced by meiosis.

C) the same amount of DNA as the nuclei of gametes produced by meiosis.

D) half as much DNA as the nuclei of gametes produced by meiosis.
B
Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells but not in animal cells?
_______

A) centrioles and centromeres
B) Golgi-derived vesicles
C) spot desmosomes
D) actin and myosin
E) tubulin and dynein
C
During mitosis in animal cells, at which phase do centrioles begin to move apart? _______

A) prometaphase
B) anaphase
C) prophase
D) metaphase
E) telophase
A
Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in animal cells? _______

A) centrosome
B) kinetochore
C) centromere
D) chromatid
E) centriole
A
Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that prevents _______

A) shortening of microtubules.
B) formation of a cleavage furrow.
C) nuclear envelope breakdown.
D) cell wall formation.
E) elongation of microtubules.
D
The beginning of anaphase is indicated by which of the following?
A) loss of kinetochores from sister chromatids
B) joining of the sister chromatids to each other by cohesin
C) polymerization of spindle microtubules
D) enzymatic cleavage of cohesin
B
At which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids become daughter chromosomes? _______

A) prophase
B) anaphase
C) metaphase
D) cytokinesis
E) prometaphase
C
What is a cleavage furrow? ______

A) an indentation between daughter prokaryotic cells

B) a ring of vesicles forming a cell plate

C) a groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei

D) the metaphase plate where chromosomes attach to the spindle
C
Where are the motor proteins that move chromosomes toward the poles of the mitotic spindle located?

A) in the centrosomes
B) on the centrioles
C) on the kinetochores
D) along the length of kinetochore microtubules
B
When a cell is in late anaphase of mitosis, which of the following may be seen?

A) individual chromatids beginning to separate from one another

B) a clear area in the center of the dividing cell

C) decondensing chromosomes clustered at the poles

D) chromosomes clustered tightly at the center of the dividing cell

E) nuclear envelopes forming at the poles
D
Cells from advanced malignant tumors frequently have very abnormal chromosomes as well as an abnormal number of chromosomes. What might explain the association between malignant tumors and chromosomal abnormalities?

A) Cancer cells replicate chromosomes multiple times per cell cycle.

B) Cells with abnormal chromosomes have increased metabolism.

C) Cancer cells are no longer anchorage dependent.

D) Cell cycle checkpoints are not in place to stop cells with chromosome abnormalities.
G1
Which is the first checkpoint in the cell cycle where a cell will be caused to exit the cycle if this point is not passed?
C
Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?

A) They stop dividing in culture when growth factors are depleted.

B) They exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture.

C) They evade the normal controls that trigger programmed cell death.

D) They must be attached to a substrate to divide in culture.
D
Why do neurons and some other specialized cells divide infrequently?

A) They no longer carry receptors for signal molecules.

B) They no longer produce cyclins.

C) They no longer have active nuclei.

D) They have been shunted into G0.
A
If the cell whose nuclear material is shown in Figure 9.2 continues toward completion of mitosis, which of the following events would occur next?

A) segregation of daughter chromosomes toward the poles

B) cell membrane synthesis

C) alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate

D) formation of telophase nuclei

E) synthesis of sister chromatids
Glycolysis
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (o2) is present or absent?
C
Which of the following is a exergonic rx?

A. Dehydration rx between two monosaccharides to produce a disaccharide

B. Synthesis of ATP from ADP and pI

C. Hydrolysis of glycogen to release glucose monomers

D. formation of a peptide bond
NADH and Pyruvate
End products of glycolysis