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Terms in this set (27)
Necessary and proper
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Introduction to the Constitution
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Reasons for the Revolution
1.) "No taxation without representation"
2.) Intolerable Acts
3.) Violence, Boston Massacre, tarring and feathering
agreement providing a dual system of congressional representation (one vote based on the population of each state, the other equal for each state)
people who opposed the Constitution
The land ordinances
Established rules for setting/governing western lands; divided land received from France into the NW territories
The turning point of the American Revolution. France decided to help the U.S.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Three branches of government
Legislative (makes laws), Executive (enforced laws), and Judicial (interprets laws)
1781; last battle of the revolution; Benedict Arnold, Cornwallis and Washington; colonists won because British were surrounded and they surrended
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
no power to tax, President lacked power, no money to buy ships or pay soldiers
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Causes of Shay's Rebellion
Country went into debt, Mass. passed high taxes, farmers foreclosed on farms.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
On Christmas night, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.
(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
US advantages and disadvantages
-Knew the lay of the land
-Hoped for support from Britain's enemies
-Had guerilla tactics (hit and run types of tactics, rather than marching in a line)
-Tried to prolong war in order to get support and perhaps deter Britain from continuing to fight)
- Did not have a well-trained army
- Insufficient funds and supplies
-Small support among population
British Advantages and Disadvantages
-Experienced officers and soldiers
-Royal navy is largest and most experienced at time
-Well supplied, trained, fed, equipped, funded, and disciplined
-Payed others to fight like Hessians
-Unfamiliar with territory and far from home
-Lacked recruiting and some inexperienced wealthy officers in higher position
-weapons took longer to load
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