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Chapter 15 vascular system AP
Terms in this set (76)
Linees all blood vessels
Site for exchange of nutrients and oxygen
Layer of a blood vessel wall made of strong fibrous connective tissue
Blood vessel containing one-way valves
Produces chemicals that cause blood vessels to dilate or constrict
Larger protein molecules can pass through these vessels
Another name for veins based on their ability to carry varying amounts of blood
Blood vessels with the thickest walls
Another name for arterioles based on their ability to affect blood pressure
Layer of a blood vessel wall containing muscle and elastic tissue that allows a vessel to change diameter
Arteries closest to the heart
Also called "muscular" vessels
Collect blood from capillaries
Vessels that connect to capillaries on the arteriole side
Also referred to as "elastic" vessels
Venules converge to form these
Veins closest to the heart
Deliver blood to specific organs
Layer of blood vessel wall that provides support and protection
Center spae of a blood vessel
Which blood vessels connect the two sides of the vascular system?
How are capillaries organized?
Capillaries branch off of arterioles to form a bed, or network, of many capillaries.
Which blood vessels have the greatest ability to expand and recoil, and why is this important?
Conducting arteries, so they can manage the surge of blood with systole and help propel blood during diastole.
Why is it important for the tunica intima to be smooth?
To help prevent blood clots
Which is the correct order of vessels in the arterial system, starting at the heart?
Conducting arteries, distributing arteries, arterioles, capillaries
Which is the correct order of vessels in the venous system, beginning with the capillaries?
Venules, medium sized veins, large veins
Which blood vessel has the most significant role in controlling the amount of blood reaching the tissue?
Capillary walls are composed of
a single layer of endothelium with basement membrane.
Which best explains how the vascular system maintains blood pressure?
Arterioles dilate or constrict to provide the correct amount of resistance to blood flow.
What happens as blood is transported from the aorta to the capillaries?
How does the cardiovascular system meet the metabolic needs of skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise?
It opens up capillary beds in skeletal muscle.
What would occur in the capillary bed if osmotic pressure in the venule end was equal to osmotic pressure in the tissues?
Carbon dioxide and waste products would remain in the tissue fluid.
Which process pushes plasma and dissolved nutrients through the arterial end of the capillary wall?
What is diffusion from the standpoint of capillary exchange?
Movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
A patient who cannot walk because of severe arthritis develops edema in both ankles. Based on your understanding of edema, capillary pressure, and mechanisms of capillary exchange, which action would help decrease the patient's edema?
Elevate the patient's legs.
The coronary arteries arise from which major artery?
Which area of the aorta supplies blood to the liver?
Which are the three branches of the aortic arch?
Left common corotid, brachiocephalic, and left subclavian arteries.
The abdominal aorta divides into
the right and left common iliac arteries.
Which arteries provide most of the brain's blood supply?
Right and left common carotid arteries
Which organs receive blood from the mesenteric arteries?
The most common site for routine assessment of heart rate is the
The blood vessel that receives all blood returning from below the level of the heart is the
inferior vena cava.
Which blood vessel(s) does blood enter after leaving the portal vein?
What is the function of the pulmonary circulation?
To bring deoxygenated blood to the alveoli for gas exchange.
How does blood flow through the pulmonary circulation?
Right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, lobar arteries, capillary beds, lobar veins, pulmonary vein, left atrium
What effect does reducing peripheral resistance have?
It increases blood flow and decreases blood pressure.
How is it possible to have two separate circulatory systems (pulmonary and systemic)?
The heart is really two separate pumps; circulation to the lungs needs one pump, whereas circulation to the body needs a separate pump.
What is a portal system of circulation?
Circulation of blood through two capillary beds before returning to the heart.
Where is blood flow slowest and what contributes to the diminished velocity?
Flow is slowest in the capillaries because of their larger cross-sectional area and narrow diameter.
Although cardiac contractions supply some of the power propelling blood through the vascular system, what other property of the circulatory system keeps blood circulating?
The maximum pressure generated during ventricular contraction is called
Where in the cardiovascular system are the highest and the lowest pressures found?
Aorta (highest), capillaries (lowest)
What is peripheral resistance?
Any property of the peripheral vascular system or blood that increases friction.
Which is the most significant factor affecting peripheral resistance?
Blood vessel diameter
Which three factors determine blood pressure?
Resistance, blood volume, cardiac output
Which factors cause blood pressure to rise?
Increased cardiac output, increased blood volume, increased resistance
What causes the friction in blood vessels that affects blood pressure?
Blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter.
The pressure gradient in the vascular system must be high enough to overcome which of the following factors?
Peripheral resistance and gravity
Why might a person with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg might have a blood pressure of only 70 mm Hg in the arterioles?
Pressure declines as the blood moves away from the heart.
How is the peripheral resistance related to blood pressure?
Blood pressure must rise until it overcomes peripheral resistance.
How does vasodilation decrease blood pressure?
It decreases resistance, which means less pressure is required to overcome the resistance.
Which brain structure coordinates blood pressure control?
What mechanisms assist venous return?
One-way valves, skeletal muscle contractions, pressure changes during breathing.
What is the probable cause of ankle edema in a person with right-sided heart failure?
Increased capillary filtration
What actions cause blood pressure to fall?
Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous and secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide.
Atrial walls are _____________ than venous walls because they are subjected to greater _________________.
____________ carry blood away from the heart, and ___________ return blood to the heart.
Arteries in the brain unite to form the _______________, which helps ensure that the brain receives an adequate supplyy of blood.
circle of Willis
The two major pathways of circulation are the ______________ system and ____________ system.
pulmonary and systemic
The two principal veins of the legs are the __________ veins and the ___________ veins.
great saphenous, popliteal
The ____________ is the main vessel that receives blood from the head, shoulders, and arms.
superior vena cava
The two arteries that supply blood to the brain are the _________ and ___________ arteries.
An increase in blood volume will cause blood pressure to
___________ is the actual volume of blood passing through a blood vessel, organ, or other part of the circulatory system in a given period.
The greater the blood's _____________, the more it resists free flow.
viscosity (thickness, stickiness)
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