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Period 4: 1800-1848 AP US History
Terms in this set (23)
Political party created in the 1790s led by Alexander Hamilton; favored a stronger national government; supported primarily by the bankers and moneyed interests
Political party created in the 1790's; led by Thomas Jefferson; favored limited government and state rights; supported primarily by the "common man"
Election of 1800
(AKA Revolution of 1800) election that led to a peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist party to the Democratic Republican Party
Hartford Convention, 1814
Meeting of Federalists during the War of 1812 discuss strategy to gain more power in government; viewed as unpatriotic by many; as a result, the Federalist Party was no longer a significant force in American politics
Era of Good Feelings
Term used to describe the time period after the 2nd Party System in the United States after the Federalist Party fell from the national stage, leaving only the Democratic Party; associated with the presidency of James Monroe
Political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office in 1829; part of the 2nd Party System of the United States; supported Jeffersonian ideas of limited government and individualism; drew its support from the "common Man"
Political Party created in 1834 as a coalition of anti-Jackson political leaders and dedicated to internal improvements funded by the national government
Leader of the Whig Party who proposed an "American System" to make the United States economically self-sufficient, mostly through protective tariffs; worked to keep the Union together through political compromise
Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)
After South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void, President Jackson obtained a Force Bill to use military actions against South Carolina; ended with a compromise to lower tariffs over an extended time; overall significance was the challenge of states to ignore federal law (later on with laws regarding slavery).
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina political leader who defended slavery as a positive good and advocated the doctrine of nullification, a policy in which state could nullify federal law.
Panic of 1819
Financial panic that began when the Second Bank of the US tightened credit and recalled government loans after the price of cotton dropped
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in US history; designed primarily to help America's textile industry
Tariff of Abominations 1828
Tariff with such high rates that it set off tension between northerners and southerners over tariff issues (called the Nullification Crisis)
War of 1812
1812-1815, War between the U.S. and Great Britain caused primarily by the perceived British violation of American neutral rights on the high seas (impressment); ended with an agreement of "status quo ante" (a return to how things were before the war)
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
President Monroe's unilateral declaration that the Americas would be closed to further European colonization and that the U.S. would not allow European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere; in return the U.S. pledged to stay out of European conflicts and affairs; significant foreign policy state that lasted through most of the 19th century
Shawnee leader who attempted to establish an Indian confederacy among tribes from around the continent that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion; defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 by U.S. forces led by General William Henry Harrison, slowing the momentum of Pan-Indian unity
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Law that provided for the removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi and the purchase of Indian lands for white resettlement
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
A Supreme Court ruling that declared a state did not have the power to enforce laws on lands that were not under state jurisdiction; John Marshall wrote that the state of Georgia did not have the power to remove Indians; this ruling was largely ignored by President Andrew Jackson
Trail of Tears (1838)
Forced march of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Indian Territory in the winter; a large percentage of Cherokee died on the journey
The American System
Consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: (1) a tariff to protect and promote American industry; (2) a national bank to foster commerce; (3) federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture; supported heavily by Henry Clay
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, maintaining the balance between slave and free states in representation in the federal government; established a geographic line that would determine whether new states (made from the western territories) would be added to the union as slave or free states
Public offices given as a reward for political support. Most iconically used by Andrew Jackson after his first election, which then became a precedent for future federal leaders.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819, Marshall)
The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
term for those in Congress during Reconstruction (1865-77) who agitated for increased civil rights for African Americans (citizenships for all and voting rights for African American adult males)
How were party nominating conventions important during the Age of Jackson?
John Calhoun (agreed with/opposed) the Wilmot Proviso. What did he warn of if it was passed?
who was the president that a apologized to Hawaii?
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