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100 terms

congress test C&E

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what type of congress do we have?
bicameral. senate and house
historical reason for bicameral
british parliament is 2 houses and most state houses in colonial times we as well
practice reasons
settle conflicts between large and small states and reflection of federalism
theoretical reasons
so each house can check each other, diffuse government so it will not overwhelm the other 2 branches, allow for states to be equal
terms and session: terms of congress, how long is a term?
a term lasts for 2 years the 111th congress began on january 3rd 2009 and will end jan 3 20011, currently in the second session, 3 of every odd numbered years
terms and session: sessions of congress, what is a session?
a session of congress is that period of time during which congress assembles and conducts business, 2 sessions of congress during a term, congress adjourns or suspends sessions as it sees fit
terms and session: special session
only president can all a special session, usually deals with emergency issues, senate can only can be called for a special session alone to ratify a treaty
house of representatives: size and term
435 members, seats esand distributed on states population, all states have at least 1 member, members serve a 2 year term
house of representatives:reapportionment
sets are redistibuted every 10 years with the census, a growing nation, number of seats grew with almost ever census, 106 to 142 by 1800, in 1910 up to 435
house of representatives: the reapportion act of 1929
set permanent size to 435, after every census the census Bureau is to determine state seats
house of representatives:reapportionment
when plan is ready presidnet sends to congress, it becomes effective after 60 days if neither house objects
house of representatives:congressional elections
all congressional elections are held on the same day first tuesday after the first monday in november, alaska is the onyl exception and can vote in october if they want to because of weather
house of representatives:congressional elections: off year elections
congressional elections which occurs in non president years, party that holds presidency tends to lose seats in off year elections DIVIDED GOVERNMENT pres 1 party congress is another
house of representatives:districts
435 in the us, 428 in 43 states, 7 states themselves are districts RE DE WY ND ID AK MT
house of representatives: single member districts
electoral district from which one person is choses by the voters for each elected office, if the plurality instead of majority then there must be a run-off election (special), winner takes all districts, state legislatures draw district lines, must be compact, must be nearly equaling numbers NOT ALWAYS THE WAY IT REALLY WAS
house of representatives: gerrymandering
drawing of districts lines to the advantage of a party, can be seen and takes on of two forms to concentrate the oppositions voters in one or a few districts thus leaving the other districts safe seats for dominant party to spread the opposition thin among several districts this limiting the oppositions ability to win, named after governer Elbridge Gerry of Mass
house of representatives: renoylds vs sims 1961
supreme court rules that all districts of the state legislatures must be equal in the apportioned population
house of representatives: wesberry vs sanders 1964
georgia congressional districts population difference were so great they were in violation of the constitution of the us supreme court ruled districts must be formed in as equal number as possible
house of representatives: formal qualifications
25 years olf, citizen of the us for 7 years, inhabitant of the state and district (NC- district resident for 2 year) the house is the judge of the elections returns and qualifications of it own members, can refuse to seat a member eleted by majority vote, and punish and expel if necessary
house of representatives: informal qualifications
deals with vote getting abilities, party identification, name recognition, gender or ethnic characteristics, political experience (men, white, wealthy, lawyer HOUSE MEMBERS)
house of representatives: houses jobs only it can do
start laws that make people pay taxes- TAX BILL, decide if a government official should be put in trial before the senate if he or she commits a crime against the country, investigate impeachment charges on pres, vp, all federal judges
senate: size
100 members, framers hoped that smaller senate more "enlightened", represents a larger population and therefor have more interests, not only focus on state but also local
senate:election
originally chosen by state legislatures, 17th amendment changed to direct election of senators
senate: terms
6 year terms, every 2 years 1/3rd of senate is up for election to create a CONTINUOUS BODY, longer terms allows senators to have less pressure from interest groups and public opinion, more able to deal with the "big picture" of national politics and states
senate: qualifications of a senator
30 years old, citizen of the us for at least 9 years, inhabitant of the state for which he or she was elected NC= 2 years, senate is the "jude of the elections, return and qualification of its own members", can refuse to seat a member elected by majority, can punish and expel if necessary
senate: senates special jobs only it can do
say yes or no to any treaty, approves presidential appointment for jobs, such as cabin offices, supreme court justice, and ambassadors, can hold impeachment trials for a government official who does something very wrong, senates ability to deal with more national issues, its more responsibilities and checks on branches, considered it to be upper house
senate:why is senate the upper house vs lower?
senates ability to deal with more national issues, its more responsibilities and checks on branches, considered it to be upper house
members of congress: personal and political backgrounds
typically white male in mid 50's, women and blacks are representatives, hispanic asians americans and pacific islanders are in house, most are married few divorced, 2 children, have some religious affiliation, many are lawyers, nearly all went to college and many with advanced degrees, most have $$$ but some rely on their salary, an average senators are in a 2nd term and reps are in a 4th term IN CUBENCY, continuous re-election rates of the HOR are 98% and senators are 85%
members of congress: the jobs 5 roles
1: representatives of their constitution 4 ways
a trustee: believe that each question they face must be decided on its merits
b delegates: agents of who elected them and vote like the "folks: back home would want
c partisans: vote along party lines
d politicas: try to balance 3 and vote accordingly
members of congress: the jobs 5 roles
2: committee members: working of bills, oversight various agencies in the government and private sectors
members of congress: the jobs 5 roles
3: servants of constituents: tries to help "folks" back home, deals with problems of bureaucracy, some people believe that members should dothem favors
members of congress: the jobs 5 roles
4: politicians: power source of government
compensations: salary
rand and file- members make 174000 a year ( no leadershop position)
speaker of the house 223,500 a year
president pro tempore of senate 193400 a year
majority and minority leaders and whips 193400 a year
compensations: non salary compensation
special tax deduction based on duel residences, traces allowance, low cost for medical care, generous retirement plans, offices in either the office buildings near the capital and allowances for offices in home state and operating costs, franking privilege- no paying for stamps
compensations: the politics of pay
presidential veto is one limit to congressional pay, fear of vote backlash another limit, pay must be fairly equal to responsibility and need for qualified people, 27th amendment- congressional pay raises voted on by congress do not start until the next term of congress
membership privileges
cant be arrested going to or from sessions, cant be taken to court for what is said in session, member may not defame another person in a public speech
congressional leadership: what is the major job of the president of the senate?
breaks the tie
congressional leadership: who is the current president of the senate?
joe biden
congressional leadership: list 3 responsibilities of the speaker of the house:
influences calender and agenda on bill, appoints members of special and select committees, rules on germaneness of motions
congressional leadership: who is the current speaker of the house?
nancy pelosi
congressional leadership: list the 3 types of committees in congress
joint, special, standing
congressional leadership:what are the members who are not in leadership called in congress?
ran and file
congressional leadership: explain the role of committees in congress?
MOST IMPORTANT STRUCTURE OR CONGRESS consider bills, maintain oversight of executive agencies, and conduct investigations
congressional leadership:which party leadership position keeps the members of congress voting with their party?
whip
congressional leadership:what are the 3 classifications of senate committees?
super A, A B and C
what rule help pick committee assignments and committee chairs?
seniority rule- elevating senior members (longest continues service) to serve as committee chairs and which committee appointed
senate leadership: majority leader
elected by party caucus members is a power broker, controls agenda and calendars, recommends committee assignments, use power to persuade and negotiation to work outside party lines, great influence on legislation
senate leadership: majority whip
keeps leaders informed, counts votes, checks attendance, serves affiliation between party leadership and rank and file( non leadership position members of party) and inform an important party criticak votes
senate leadership: minority leader
elected by party caucus by non controlling party, helps majority leader, similar power, roles an duties as major leaders
senate leadership: majority whip
same as majority whip but for minority party
senate leadership: party caucus
both parties have that elect party officials, set legilative polict, set and schedule business and bills in committe, assign membership to committees, formed by law in senate and receive a staff as well as a budget
senate leadership: democratic party caucus
called democratic steering committee and republic is called conference on committees
house leadership:
more formal and leaders have more power, speaker of house - presiding members formally elected by whole house, but really elected by majority party caucus, recognizes speaker of the floor, SEE OTHER QUESTION
house leadership: majority floor
helps SOH, helps with party strategy, confers with other leadership, keeps party members in line, elected by party caucus of house
house leadership: minority floor
elected by party caucus, deals with party politics and compromises between parties , but otherwise same as senate
house leadership: majority/ minority whip
same as senate
house leadership: party caucuses
same as senate but the republican party divides the tasks between the policy caucus which schedules legislation and the caucus on committee assignments
types of committee structure of congress: standing
permanent bodies with specific legislation
types of committee structure of congress: select/ special
temporary bodies with limited purpose
types of committee structure of congress: confrence
joint committee appointed to resolve differences between senate and house versions of the same bill
types of committee structure of congress: joint
have both houses and senate members , can either be standing of special
types of committee structure of congress: subcommittees
par of the committee that researches bills, holds hearings, amends and recommends bills to the full committee, divided expertise = not based on party allegiances
3 calssifications of house committee
exclusive: serve only 1 , exempt many, non exclusive serve more than 1
purpose committee structure of congress: authorizing
committees that pass laws about what government should do and overseas the federal bureaucracy
purpose committee structure of congress: appropriations
pass laws on how government should spend money on programs and operations
purpose committee structure of congress: revenue and budget
pass laws on how government should raise money
purpose committee structure of congress: rules and administrations
pass laws on the basic operations, both houses of congress
congressional staff and specialized offices:
tasks of staff= help serve constituents, legislative work, advocate and influence, staff agencies= aid congress in legislative work beyond the staff
congressional staff and specialized offices: congressional research service CRS
part of the library of congress, responds to questions, looks up facts, fact checks and arguments for and against legislation
congressional staff and specialized offices: general accounting/ auditing office GAO
financial audits of executive office and department spending, investigates agencies, makes recommendations and efficiency
congressional staff and specialized offices: congressional budget office CBO
advises and researches for congress on the proposed budget by the executive branch
federal government: name of legislative body
congress
federal government: name of upper house
senate
federal government:number of members
100
federal government: three qualifications to be elected age citizenship and residency
age: 30, citizenship: 9 years, residency: 2 years in state
federal government: length of term
6 years
federal government: represent state or district
state
federal government: title of leader who hold the office
pre of senate, joe biden
federal government: title of day to day leader who hold the office
pres pro tempore , daniel inoye
federal government: name of lower house
house of representatives
federal government: number of members
435
federal government: three qualification
age: 25
citizenship: 7 years
residency: 2 years in state
federal government: length of term
2 years
federal government: represent district or state?
district
federal government: title of leader who hold the office
speaker of house, nancy pelosi
NC state government: name of legislative body
general assembly
NC state government name of upper house
senate
NC state government how many members?
50
NC state government three qualifications
age: 25
citizenship: 2 years
residency: 1 year in district
NC state government length of term?
2 years
NC state government represent state or district
district
NC state government title of leader who hold the office?
pres of senate leutentant governor, if he is not there than most senior member of senate
NC state government title of day to day leader who holds the office?
pres pro tempores elected most senior member of senate
NC state government name of lower house
house of representatives
NC state government number of members
120
NC state government three qualifications
18
2
1 year in district
NC state government length of term
2 years
NC state government represent state or district?
district
NC state government title of leader who hold the office?
speaker of the house most senior member of majority party
similarities between nc government and federal government
both have senate and HOR bicameral, length of term or HOR is 2 years, HOR both represent the district