70 terms

Psychology Final Exam

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Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Behavior Modification
A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning.
Extinction
A procedure in which the reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. Also may be used to describe the "process" by which a previously learned behavior disappears as a result of non-reinforcement.
Escape Conditioning
Training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
Directed Thinking
Thinking aimed at a particular goal
Nondirected Thinking
The free flow of images and ideas, occuring with no particular goal
Cognition
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Repression
Defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings are forced to the unconscious.
Selective Attention
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Short Term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Mnemonic Devices
Methods for remembering items by relating them to information already held in the brain
Sensation
Process in which the sense organs' receptor cells are stimulated and relay initial information to higher brain centers for further processing.
Perception
A person's cognitive (mental) interpretation of events., Conscious process of organizing and interpreting data from the senses into meaningful information
Absolute Threshold
The lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect
Difference Threshold
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
Weber's Law
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
Illusions
Misperceptions or misinterpretations of real sensory events
Gestalt
The principle that maintains that the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts.
Kinesthesis
The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
Motivation
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Innate
Existing from birth, inborn
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Levels of needs people must meet in order to be motivated. From bottom to top: physical, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
Drive Reduction Theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Homeostasis
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
Consciousness
Awareness of ourselves and our environment
Hypertension
Abnormally high blood pressure
Psychoactive Drugs
Chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness
Hypnosis
A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Meditation
A family of mental exercises in which a conscious attempt is made to focus attention in a nonanalytical way.
Separation Anxiety
Distress that is sometimes experienced by infants when they are separated from their primary caregivers
Critical Period
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Object Permanence
The knowledge that an object exists even when its not in view.
Developmental Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Representational Thought
The intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind
Identity Crisis
A period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
Sex Role
Learned patterns of behavior that are expected of the sexes in a given society
Sex Identity
how a person identifies as physically female, male, in between, beyond, or neither
Conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
An expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
Ageism
Discrimination based on age
Decremental Model of Aging
idea that progressive physical and mental decline are inevitable with age
Inferiority Complex
A feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious, with its roots in childhood.
Sigmund Freud
A psychologist who developed psychoanalysis. Believed strongly that unconscious drives and desires guided people's actions.
Extrovert
A person whose attention is focused on others and on what is going on around her or him, rather than on her or his own feelings.
Introvert
A person whose thoughts and interests are directed inward
Humanistic Psychology
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Ethical decisions are based on stages of moral development
Achievement Test
A test designed to assess what a person has learned
Aptitude Test
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test
Norms
Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members.
Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
A disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind.
Anxiety
An emotional state of high energy, with the stress response as the body's reaction to it.
Placebo Effect
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
Jean Piaget
(1896-1980) was a Swiss Psychologist, who studied cognitive development, He proposed that cognitive abilities develop through a series of stages.
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
Phobia
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychiatry
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
B.F. Skinner
American psychologist of behaviorism developed operant condition. Emphasis on environment and ovserved behavior
Erik Ericson
theory of lifespan development--each stage involves psychological crisis--transition around social relationships, personality determined by stages
Bloom's Taxonomy
A system for classifying knowledge learning outcomes in terms of the complexity of mental activity required.
Neuron
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Cerebrum
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
Hypothalmus
Brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Hormones
Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues