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Key terms, events, people, etc.

Dorthea Dix

Fought for the humane treatment of the insane; created idea of insane asylums

Horace Mann

"Father of public education"; fought for better public schools

Peter Cartwright

Revivalist and politician who helped start the Second Great Awakening in America

Walt Whitman

Humanist and poet who helped to start the transition between transcendentalism and realism. Wrote "Leaves of Grass," which was highly controversial due to its overt sexual themes

Susan B. Anthony

American civil rights leader fighting for women's suffrage in the United States

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Popular American essayist; essays were said to reflect the spirit of the U.S.

Henry David Thoreau

American author and essayist who wrote resistance to amoral civil governments

Charles G. Finney

American fantasy writer and newspaperman

William H. McGuffey

Professor and college president with best selling textbook series

Joseph Smith

Founds Church of Latter Day Saints, Mormon group

Horace Greeley

Founding member of Liberal Republican Party
Whig, republican, vegetarian, socialist, opposed to slavery
Loses 1872 election by a landslide

John Humphrey Noyes

American Utopian Socialist, founds Oneida Community in 1848 on ideals of free love and the fact that the second coming of Christ occurred in 70 A.D., so humanity was already in a new age. Also practiced birth control and eugenics

American Temperance Society

Group set against alcohol, particularly rum. They used children to collect pledges and gain sympathy, calling them the "Cold Water Army"


A group of Protestant Quakers led by Ann Lee who rejected all aspects of sexuality, leading to their inevitable extinction

Maine Law

1851 law in Maine which prohibited the making and selling of liquor


A relatively liberal offshoot of Christianity, based on the idea that there was no holy trinity, only a singular god

Second Great Awakening

A religious revival due to the belief that all souls could be saved if they were converted.

Hudson River School

A group of landscape painters inspired by romanticism. Their group's paintings gave the Hudson River Valley its name

Knickerbocker Group

A writer's club founded by Washington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant

Burned Over District

The religious scene of Upstate New York, which was frequently "burned over" and restarted by various revivals and awakenings

Declaration of Sentiments

Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848, it was like the declaration of independence, with its focus on women's rights and equality


A new turn in literature meant promoting a spiritual reality over physical and logical ways of thinking


Followers of William Miller, who believed that Jesus Christ's second coming would be in 1843


The belief that there is a supreme being without the need for organized religion or religious study


Founded by Joseph Smith, believed that Jesus came to the Americas and gave them Christianity, their experiences being written in the Book of Mormon

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