AP Euro Chapter 19: Revolutions in Politics
Terms in this set (23)
Louis XVI became king of France in 1774 at age 20 and married Marie Antoinette, the Habsburg daughter of Maria Teresa. He was a shy and weak king which was one factor that led to the French Revolution. Louis was unable to solve France's financial problems so he called the Estates General (Parliament) in 1789, the first time since 1614. However, he didn't invite the Third Estate (bourgeoisie) to Versailles for the meeting which angered them and led them to form the National Assembly. Louis received bad advice and sent his troops to oversee the dissolving of the National Assembly which led to the political dissent becoming a full on revolution. In 1791, the royal family was imprisoned for trying to escape France and Louis was executed by guillotine on January 21, 1793.
Reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror occurred in France from 1793-1794. It was during this time that Robespierre held dictatorial power in France through the Committee of Public Safety. In the Reign of Terror, over 40,000 people were executed or died in prison. It was used to eliminate those suspected of opposing the revolution. However, the Reign of Terror led to the people's Thermidorian reaction.
The Jacobins were a political party in France whose members were well-educated radical republicans. The held most of the seats in the National Convention of the Second Republic. The Jacobins as well as others declared war against Austria and the First Coalition in a crusade against tyranny. The Jacobins later divided into two groups, the Girondists, and the Mountain which was led by Robespierre. This division clearly emerged when the National Convention convicted Louis XVI of treason. The Girondists did not want to execute him, but by a narrow majority, the Mountain won the vote and Louis was executed on January 21, 1793. The Jacobins suppressed women's participation in political debate and prohibited women from going to clubs or popular societies.
Robespierre was the main leader of the Mountain, a division of the Jacobin party. He also led the Committee for Public Safety which sealed with threats to the Revolution within and outside France. He was given dictatorial power and this led to the Reign of Terror in which thousands of suspected traitors were executed. His government under the Reign of Terror adopted the decimal system for weights and measures and created a new calendar with ten-day weeks. Robespierre tried to de-Christianize France but stopped due to fear of the hostility aroused in rural France. Robespierre was executed by the French people on July 28, 1794.
The Directory 1795-1799
The Directory was formed in 1795 and is a five man body that was in charge of Parliament. They reopened churches and required people to own property in order to vote. They also supported French military expansion abroad which reduced unemployment. However people grew tired of the corruption and ineffectiveness of the Directory, and Napoleon rose to power in 1799.
The Thermidorian Reaction was the people's reaction to the violence during Robespierre's Reign of Terror. During the Reign of Terror thousands of people were executed and near the end of it, Robespierre executed some of his own followers believing they turned against him. People freaked out and Robespierre and hundreds of his followers were arrested and executed. Afterwards, more moderate policies were favored and economic controls were loosened.
Napoleon became the ruler of France in 1799 and crowned himself Emperor in 1804. His government was called the Consulate and he was declared the Consul. After an assassination attempt in 1800, he formed a secret police to kill all opposition to his rule. He established the Bank of France in 1800. He signed the Concordat of 1801 which allowed French Catholics to freely practice their religion, but the government assigned and paid clergy. Napoleon defeated Austria and the Treaty of Lunéville (1801) gave France almost all of Austria's Italian territory and German land up to the Rhine. Napoleon sold Louisiana to Thomas Jefferson and the United States to get money to fight the British. Napoleon and his Empire later declined (see other notecard).
The Estates General were the Parliament of France until the French Revolution. The First Estate was composed of clergy (1% population). The Second Estate was the nobles (2% population). The Third Estate consisted of the bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants (97% of population). Louis called the Estates General in 1789, the first time since 1614 to get help with France's financial problems, but he didn't invite the Third Estate to the meeting at Versailles which angered them and led to them forming the National Assembly that also included some members of the First and Second Estates.
Bastille and Great Fear
In 1789, people were angry and protesting that bread prices had doubled and they heard that Louis XVI's troops were "coming to put them down". This led to them marching on the Bastille on July 14, 1789 to seize weapons to defend themselves. This violence spread to the countryside with the Great Fear when peasants revolted and feared retribution from nobles. This led to the peasants gaining some rights, such as the abolition of serfdom where it still existed, which they mainly sought to protect after this time.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was issued by the National Assembly on August 27, 1789. It guaranteed the equality of men before the law, a representative government for a sovereign people, and individual freedom. However, it had little practical effect for the poor and hungry people of Paris and caused many nobles to emigrate to Paris, worsening economic conditions.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was established in July of 1790 by the National Assembly. It established a national church with priests chosen by voters. It also forced the Catholic clergy to swear an oath of loyalty to the government. Churches became national property, and some were sold to try to pay off debt.
Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges
Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges advocated for equal rights for women. Wollstonecraft, a young writer in London, wrote two books, A Vindication of the Rights of Man (1790) and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). De Gouges taught herself to read and write using a Wollstonecraft's books. She protested the evils of slavery and the injustices done to women. Her pamphlet Declaration of the Rights of Woman was published in September 1791. Olympe de Gouges was executed by guillotine in November 1793.
Declaration of Pillnitz
After the royal family tried to escape France and was imprisoned in June of 1791, Austria and and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz in August of 1791. It said that they were willing to intervene in France to restore Louis XVI's rule if necessary, and that they would declare war on France if the royal family was hurt. This Declaration angered the Jacobins in France and in April 1792, France declared war on Francis II of Austria.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès was a Catholic priest who wrote "What is the Third Estate?" in which he vigorously condemned the system of privilege that lay at the heart of French society. He argued that the common people of the third estate, who did most of the work and payed most of the taxes, constituted the true nation of France. His pamphlet helped galvanize public opinion and convinced the third Estate to proclaim themselves a "National Assembly". Later, he abandoned his views and helped Napoleon Bonaparte rise to power in an authoritarian regime.
National Assembly 1789-1791
The third Estate voted to call themselves the National Assembly on June 17, 1789 after being excluded from Louis XVI's meeting of the Estates General at Versailles. They then pledged the Tennis Court Oath in June 20, 1789, vowing to not disband until they had been recognized as a national assembly and written a new Constitution. After the chaos of the Great Fear, the National Assembly abolished feudalism and rural serfdom on August 4, 1789. They created the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen on August 27, 1789. Later they confiscated Catholic Church property and passed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in July of 1790.
The sans-culottes were the labeling poor of Paris, called this because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breaches that the aristocracy and middle class wore. The Mountain used the sans-culottes to engineer a popular uprising. On June 2, 1793, armed sans-culottes invaded the National Convention and forced its deputies to arrest 29 Girondist deputies for treason. After this all power was passed to the Mountain and the word sans-culottes came to refer to the militant radicals of Paris.
Committee for Public Safety
The Committee for Public Safety was formed by the National Convention in April of 1793 to deal with threats from within and outside France. It was led by Robespierre and held dictatorial power, allowing them to use whatever force necessary to defend the revolution. During the Reign of Terror, thousands of people suspected of treason were executed by the Committee.
National Convention 1792-1795
The National Convention proclaimed France a republic in September 1792 and executed Louis XVI on January 21, 1793. In February 1793, the National Convention, already at war with Austria and Prussia, declared war on Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Spain and was victorious on all fronts by spring 1794. The Convention formed the Committee for Public Safety in April 1793, and banned women's political societies in October 1793.
The Napoleonic Code was created in 1804 and reasserted many fundamental principles of the French Revolution. It assured the equality of all male citizens before the law, and the security of wealth and private property. However, it restricted the rights of women, giving them fewer rights than a minor. They could not make contracts or have bank accounts in their own names.
Turning points against Napoleon (Trafalgar, Peninsular War, Borodino)
Napoleon planned to attack Great Britain, but his Mediterranean fleet was destroyed by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805, thus making it impossible for Napoleon to invade England. Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807 and conquered it as well as parts of Spain. However in 1808, the Spanish began to revolt and wage guerilla warfare against Napoleon. Later Napoleon invaded Russia, looking to also attack them for opposing his Continental System. He originally planned to have his troops spend the winter in Smolensk, but then decided to press on toward Moscow. That led to the Battle of Borodino which was a draw. Alexander I of Russia then ordered the evacuation of Moscow and burned it down and Napoleon was forced to retreat having lost 370,000 men with another 200,000 taken prisoner.
The Continental System was Napoleon's plan to weaken the British economy and military force. It was a blockade in which no ship coming from Britain or her colonies could dock at a port controlled by the French. However this System failed, and caused Britain to set up a counter blockade which weakened the French.
Napoleon had been exiled to the small Italian island of Elba, but upon hearing of political unrest in France under Louis XVIII, Napoleon escaped Elba and marched on Paris with a small band of followers. However after the time known as the Hundred Days, his forces were crushed at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, and he was imprisoned on St. Helena, a rocky island off the coast of Africa.
In Haiti, slave uprisings began in 1791 under Toussaint L'Overture (known as black Napoleon). He eventually gained control of the whole colony, but Napoleon sent his brother-in-law General Charles-Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc to crush the new regime and capture L'Overture. He captured L'Overture in 1802 and the rebel leader along with his family was deported to France where he died in 1803. L'Overture's lieutenant Jean Jacques Dessalines united the resistance (with the help of General Leia jk jk) and led it to a crushing victory over French forces. He declared the independence of Saint-Domingue and the creation of a new sovereign nation of Haiti on January 1, 1804. The Haitian constitution was ratified in 1805. Haiti was the first slave uprising in history to succeed and became the first independent slave country. It was the second country in the Americas, after the United States, to gain its independence.
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