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Test 2 Bio Lab
Terms in this set (53)
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
In a hypertonic solution
the cell will lose water and shrink
In a hypotonic solution
the cell will gain water and enlarge
Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
Plasmolysis (plant cells)
The pulling away of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane from the cell wall due to lack of water
Plasmolysis occurs in
the rupture or destruction of red blood cells.
Hemolysis occurs in red blood cells because..
the cell entering a hypotonic state
Plants in hypotonic solutions swell until the cell wall provides physical resistance to the uptake of more water
the chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
small nonpolar molecules
Which of the following will pass through a cell membrane most easily?
The indicators used in excersize 9 (diffusion and osmosis)
phenolphthalein and iodine
Iodine is a _______indicator that turns from yellow to blue in solutions.
phenolphthalein is a pH indicator that turns _____ in _______ solutions
The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
The experiments with the diffusion and osmosis section had to do mostly with ______ bags which were filled with different ______ of solutions and then examined afterwards
Plants wilt because
of plasmolysis, when water leaves the cells.
In excersize 10, Cell Membranes and the affects of stress, cell membranes were exposed to hot and cold temperatures to see how they reacted. The amount of _________ leaked from damaged cells could by observed by the _____ intensity of the water.
In conclusion, in excersize 10, excessive ______ damaged the cell membranes the most
A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the cell sap
fluid mosaic model
model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
In excersize 10, the affects of stress on the membrane, the independent variable was the
temperatures the membranes were exposed to
In excersize 10, the affects of stress on the membrane, the dependent variable was the
color intensity caused by betacyanin leaked from the cells.
Enzymes are also known as
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:
energy of activation
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
enzymes lower the
a structural change in an enzyme may
denature the enzyme
Enviromental factors such as ______ and ______________ can affect the effectiveness of enzymes
a plant enzyme that oxidizes catechol and converts it to benzoquinone
an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide.
cell respiration equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + H2O + energy
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
a molecule that transfers energy in cellular respiration
The oxidation of glucose to pyruvate occurs in....
Occurs when oxygen is present; pyruvate is oxidized to CO2.
oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain)
occurs as electron transport chain generates proton gradients and powers ATP synthase.
any organism that is able to live without oxygen
Anaerobes use glycolysis but the pyruvate produced is oxidized further via
C6H12O6 -----> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + ATP + Heat
breaks glucose down into ethanol, carbon dioxide ATP and Heat.
is a cofactor that activates some enzymes of glycolysis (activator)
Sodium Flouride (NaF)
and inhibitor of some enzymes of glycolysis
In excersize 12, cell respiration different _________ and _________ of glycolysis were tested with yeast as the bacteria that would perform/ not perform glycolysis
_______ and yeast were always used in the experiment for excersize 12 as together they facilitate cellular respiration
snails were used in excersize 12 (cell respiration)
to observe the production of CO2 in aerobic respiration.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
In excersize 13 (photosynthesis), ____________ was used to separate dissolved pigment and analyze the Rf constant.
distance moved by pigment/distance from pigment origin to solvent front
The Rf number is largely dependant of
molecular size, polarity and solubility as these factors determine the differential movement of pigments
Xanthophylls and Carotenoids
accessory pigments that absorb light and transfer energy to chlorophyll a.
chlorophylls a and b
primary photosynthetic pigments that absorb light for photosynthesis