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Infection Control Ch. 21
Terms in this set (72)
soft tissue or bone
Critical instruments are items used to penetrate what?
forceps, scalpels, bone chisels, scalers, and burs
Examples of critical instruments include?
Semicritical items .
instruments touch mucous membranes or nonintact skin and have a lower risk of transmission.
HVE tips, Rubber dam forceps, Amalgam carriers
examples of semi critical instruments?
pose the least risk of transmission of infection because they contact only intact skin, which is an effective barrier to microorganisms.
EPA-registered intermediate-level or low-level disinfectant after each patient use.
What should noncritical instruments be cleaned and processed with?
(PID) of the x-ray unit , lead apron, or the curing light that comes into contact only with intact skin.
Examples of noncritical instruments?
steps for instrument processing
once a day
how often should ultrasonic solution be changed?
through contact with contaminated instruments or other patient-care items
How can the dental assistant can be exposed to microorganisms?
Most common way a dental assistant can get a bbp is through?
What is not recommended for a holding solution?
Instrument washing machines.
Instruments may be precleaned in one of three ways:
What is the least desirable method of cleaning instruments?
are used to loosen and remove debris from instruments.
how long should cassettes be cleaned in the ultrasonic?
Instruments and burs made of carbon steel will rust during
Rust inhibitors such as
dry the instrument thoroughly
An alternative to rust inhibitors is to
dry heat and chemical vapor
What does not rust carbon steel instruments?
circulation of sterilizing agent.
packaged materials that are placed in the sterilization must be placed in single layers to allow what?
only when instruments are needed immediately (non critical and semi-critical)
When is flash sterilization used?
physical, chemical, and biologic.
Currently, three forms of sterilization monitoring are used:
By looking at the gauges and readings on the sterilizer and recording the temperatures, pressure, and exposure time.
How is physical monitoring of sterilization done?
involves the use of heat-sensitive chemical that changes color when exposed to certain conditions.
The two types of chemical indicators are:
are placed outside the instrument packages before sterilization.
a certain temperature
Process indicators simply identify instrument packs that have been exposed to
packages that were processed and those that were not processed.
Process indicators are useful in distinguishing between what?
placed inside instrument packages
combination of pressure, temperature, and time.
What do process integrators respond to?
Process integrators are also known as?
indicate sterility and are not a replacement for biologic monitoring.
Process integrators do not do what?
Biologic monitoring, or spore testing
What is the only way to determine if sterilization has occurred and all bacteria and endospores have been killed?
CDC, ADA, and OSAP
What recommends at least weekly biologic monitoring of sterilization equipment?
all microbial forms, including bacterial spores
Sterilization destroys what?
chemical vapor sterilization
dry heat sterilization
The three most common forms of heat sterilization in the dental office are :
steam under pressure
An autoclave is used to sterilize dental instruments and other items by means of
involves heating water to generate steam, producing a moist heat that rapidly kills microorganisms.
What actually kills the microorganisms?
moisture may cause corrosion on some high-carbon steel instruments
What is a disadvantage of steam sterilization?
What type of water should be used in autoclaves?
minimize corrosion and pitting.
What can distilled water do?
Dental office steam sterilizers usually operate through four cycles:
Rapid or "flash" sterilization of dental instruments
What is accomplished by rapid heat transfer, steam, and unsaturated chemical vapor?
What may be used only on instruments that are placed in the chamber unwrapped?
Chemical vapor sterilization
very similar to autoclaving, except a combination of chemicals (alcohol, formaldehyde, ketone, acetone, and water) is used instead of water to create a vapor for sterilizing .
the chemicals' toxicity.
OSHA requires a material safety data sheet (MSDS) on the chemical vapor solution because of?
it does not rust, dull, or corrode dry metal instruments.
The major advantage of the chemical vapor sterilizer is that
endodontic files, orthodontic pliers, wires, bands, and burs.
The low water content of the vapor prevents destruction of items such as
because residual chemical vapors containing formaldehyde and methyl alcohol can be released when the chamber door is opened and can be irritating to the eyes
what are the disadvantages chemical vapor sterilization?
film pouches or paper bags, nylon see-through tubing, sterilization wrap, and wrapped cassettes.
Standard packaging for chemical vapor sterilization includes ?
Pressure factor in chemical vapor sterilization should measure?
270 degrees F (131 C)
Temperature factor in chemical vapor sterilization should measure?
Time factor in chemical vapor sterilization should measure?
Dry heat sterilizers
operate by heating up air and transferring that heat from the air to the instruments.
320-375 degrees F
Dry heat sterilizers operate at approximately
instruments will not rust if they are thoroughly dry before they are placed in the sterilizer.
The advantage of dry heat is
static air and forced air.
The two types of dry heat sterilizers available are
Heat is transferred from the static (nonmoving) air to the instruments in about
The wrapping material must be
they may burn or discolor from the intense heat.
Paper and cloth packs should be avoided because
Forced air sterilizers
also called rapid heat transfer sterilizers, circulate the hot air throughout the chamber at a high velocity.
Exposure time in forced air sterilizers, after the sterilizing temperature has been reached, ranges how long for unpackaged items?
Exposure time in forced air sterilizers, after the sterilizing temperature has been reached, ranges how long for packaged items?
direct contact for the correct time is insufficient between the sterilizing agent (chemical or steam) and all surfaces of the items being processed
A load may fail to become sterilized when?
improper instrument cleaning or packaging and sterilizer malfunction
What are some factors the can cause the sterilization process to fail?
What liquid sterilization should be used for rubber dam frames, shade guides, and x-ray film holding devices?
How long should items stay in the glutaraldehyde sterilization?
ineffective on wet items. Toxicity is a risk if the gas is not handled properly.
flushing the handpick
What is the best way to remove debris from the head of the handpiece?
steam and chemical vapor sterilizers
What type of sterilization should be used when sterilizing the handpiece?
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