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FSN 210 - chapter 7, FSN 210 - chapter 9, FSN 210 - chapter 10, FSN 210 - chapter 11
Terms in this set (85)
What is the basic structure of amino acids?
each amino acid is composed of a central carbon bonded to 4 groups of elements: a nitrogen (amino) group, an acid (carboxyl) group, hydrogen and a side chain
How many amino acids are there and how many are essential?
the body needs 20 different amino acids to function. there are 9 essential amino acids
Why is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?
essential amino acids are indispensable and the body cannot make them and must be obtained from foods. non essential amino acids are dispensable because our body can make them without aid from diet
What is transamination? What is its purpose?
the transfer of an amino group from 1 amino acid to a carbon skeleton to form a new amino acid... it allows synthesis of non essential amino acids
What is deamination? What is its purpose?
amino acids can lose an amino group without transferring it to a carbon skeleton... allows carbon skeleton to be used for energy
Define what a complete protein is versus an incomplete protein?
complete proteins contain sufficient amounts of all essential amino acids (animal proteins). incomplete proteins contain limited amounts of 1 or more of the essential amino acids (plant proteins).
What is the purpose of a "pool" of amino acids?
it's an amount of nutrients for the body that can be easily mobilized when needed
What is a limiting amino acid?
essential amino acid in the lowest concentration in a food or diet relative to body needs
What is the difference between a primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
primary: sequential order of amino acids, determines the protein's shape
secondary: spiral-like or pleated sheet shape, formed by weak chemical bonds between amino acids
tertiary: 3D folding, determines overall shape and function of protein
quaternary: 2 or more separate polypeptides interacting
What is denaturation of proteins and what factors can cause this?
the alteration of protein's 3-dimensional
structure and destruction of protein function
- enzymes, heat, agitation & exposure to acid/alkaline solutions
What is the biological value of protein?
measure of how efficiently the absorbed food protein is converted into body tissue protein
Describe nitrogen balance, how it is calculated, and the difference between positive,
negative, and equilibrium.
method to determine protein needs
If protein intake equals losses, protein balance (equilibrium) is maintained.
If protein intake is less than losses, individual is in
negative protein (nitrogen) balance
If protein intake is greater than losses, individual is in positive protein (nitrogen) balance
Know how to calculate your RDA starting with your weight in pounds.
kh conversion: body weight in lbs / 2.2
.8 x body weight in kg = RDA
Be able to describe where in the digestive tract that proteins are digested, which
enzymes and chemicals are involved, and the forms that are absorbed.
stomach --- pancreas --- small int --- liver --- large int
in the body, digestion starts in the stomach
hydrochloric acid denatures protein
pepsin breaks down long polypeptide chains: release controlled by gastrin; gastrin also stimulates parietal cells to produce acids
chyme entering the small intestine triggers the
release of secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK)
How do proteins contribute to vital body structures?
During malnutrition or disease, proteins are
broken down to supply energy.
Collagen, actin, myosin
During periods of growth new proteins are
How do proteins assist in maintaining fluid balance?
Normal blood pressure forces blood into
Albumin and globulin (blood proteins)
Blood fluid moves into interstitial spaces
Blood proteins stay in blood:
Too large to move out
Will attract fluid back into blood
How do proteins contribute to acid-base balance?
Reflects the concentration of hydrogen ions:
High hydrogen concentration has a low pH, more acidic
Low hydrogen concentration has a high pH, more alkaline
How are proteins involved in hormone, enzyme, and neurotransmitter formation?
Act as chemical messengers
Aid in regulatory functions
Facilitate chemical reactions
Released by nerve endings
How do proteins contribute to immune function?
Antibodies are proteins that are a key
component of the immune system:
Bind to foreign antigens and help prevent
How do proteins assist in nutrient transportation?
Carried through the bloodstream or across
Hemoglobin carries oxygen.
Lipoproteins transport large lipid molecules.
Retinal-binding protein carries vitamin A.
Transferrin and ferritin for carry and store iron.
Ceruloplasmin carries copper.
How do proteins contribute to glucose formation?
Forms glucose if carbohydrate intake is
What is protein-energy malnutrition?
Protein deficiency usually occurs in
combination with a deficiency of
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
Most devastating effects are seen in
Fail to grow normally
Develop diarrhea, infections, diseases
What is the difference between marasmus and kwashiorkor?
Severe deficiency of energy, protein, and
Severe protein deficiency
Accompanied by underlying infection or
What are some of the effects of high protein diets on the body?
Overburdens kidneys' capacity to excrete excess urea and leads to dehydration
May increase urinary calcium loss:
When excess protein intake is primarily from high intake of animal proteins, plant-based foods are low:
- Lower intake of fiber, some vitamins and minerals, and
- Higher consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol
What are some of the positives of vegetarian diets and what are some of the nutrients
that may be commonly low as a result? What are some concerns for infants and
children when on these diets?
Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, and grains
Increased intakes of:
- Antioxidant nutrients
- Dietary fiber
Decreased intakes of:
- Saturated fats
- Vegetarianism may protect against obesity.
Most common nutritional concerns are
deficiencies of iron, vitamin B-12, vitamin D,
zinc, and calcium.
What's the difference between a vegetarian and a vegan? Or Lacto- versus Lacto-Ovo
Vegetarian's do not eat meat, and vegans eat no animal by-products.
lacto: relies on milk & cheese for animal sourced protein
lacto-ovo: excludes animal flesh & seafood
What are the two metabolic pathways that take place within the body?
Anabolic pathways use small compounds to build larger ones:
Glucose, fatty acids, cholesterol, and amino acids are building blocks.
More prominent during growth
Catabolic pathways break down compounds:
Glycogen is broken down to make glucose.
Results in the release of CO2, H2O, and energy (ATP)
More prominent during weight loss or wasting disease
What is the basic structure of ATP?
Made of adenosine bound to 3 phosphate groups:
Bonds contain energy.
Hydrolysis releases energy.
What are the 4 stages of aerobic respiration of glucose?
citric acid cycle
electron transport chain
What occurs during glycolysis? Transition reaction? Citric Acid Cycle? ETC?
Glucose is oxidized to form:
2 molecules of pyruvate
NADH + H+
2 net molecules of ATP
Occurs in the cytosol
Role is to break down carbohydrates to generate energy and produce building blocks for other compounds
Does not require oxygen
Coverts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
- NADH + H+
- Carbon dioxide (waste)
Occurs in the mitochondria
Acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle.
- NADH + H+
- Guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
- Carbon dioxide
Does not require oxygen
Energy derived from NADH + H+ and FADH2
is used to form ATP:
- NADH + H+ is oxidized to NAD+
- FADH2 is oxidized to FAD
Requires copper and iron:
- Iron component of cytochromes
- Oxygen is used and combines with H+ and electrons to form water.
Most ATP is generated in the electron transport chain
Where does glycolysis take place in the cell?
in the cytosol
Why is oxygen so important for energy metabolism?
Oxygen is essential for energy metabolism to
Without it, metabolism stops and death occurs.
It is the final acceptor of electrons and hydrogen ions generated from the breakdown of energy yielding nutrients.
What is fatty acid oxidation?
Further breakdown of fatty acids for energy
production; fatty acids donate electrons to
Occurs in the mitochondria
What is the significance of carnitine in fatty acid oxidation?
carnitine takes fatty acids to mitochondria
How do fatty acids enter the citric acid cycle?
Fatty acids contain many more carbons than
More acetyl-CoA groups are formed to enter the citric acid cycle
What conditions do your body have to be in in order to promote the formation of
Ketone body formation occurs when inadequate
insulin production does not balance glucagon
What is diabetic ketoacidosis?
If insulin is not present:
Cells cannot use glucose.
Rapid lipolysis occurs.
Ketone bodies are produced in excess:
- Spill into urine with sodium and potassium and ion imbalances occur
- Blood becomes acidic because of acid groups on ketone bodies
What part of the amino acid is used in the metabolic pathways?
branched chain, must be deaminated
Briefly explain gluconeogenesis and how ketogenic amino acids and glucogenic amino
acids play a role.
Pathway of producing glucose from some amino acids
Only occurs in liver and kidneys
Begins in mitochondria with oxaloacetate:
- Returned to cytosol, loses carbon dioxide:
- 3-carbon phosphoenolpyruvate is formed,
then reverses through glucolysis to form
Requires ATP, biotin, riboflavin, niacin, B-6
Can fat be used to synthesize glucose? Why or why not?
Makes 2-carbon acetyl-CoA:
Cannot form pyruvate
Must make ketones or combine with oxaloacetate
What is the main pathway used to metabolize alcohol?
What are other pathways that allow for the metabolism of alcohol?
How do ATP concentrations regulate metabolism?
energy sensing. when the cell is consuming energy, ATP is being hydrolyzed to ADP or to AMP
What is the importance of the liver in relation to nutrient interconversions?
most nutrients must pass through the liver after absorption into the body. what leaves the liver is often different than what entered
Briefly explain the significance of enzymes, hormones, vitamins, minerals in the
presence & rate of activity of enzymes is critical to chemical reactions in the body
hormones regulate metabolic processes
many vitamins & minerals are necessary for metabolic pathways to operate (nutrient input)
Briefly explain the differences between postprandial fasting, short-term fasting, and
post-prandial (0-6 hours after eating): encourages use of mostly glucose as well as fatty/amino acids for energy
short-term (3-5 days): depleted glycogen stores, rapid use of certain amino acid carbon skeletons for glucose
long-term (5-7 days): leads to reduced breakdown of body protein & increased use of adipose stores
What types of synthesis is encouraged during feasting?
encourages synthesis of glycogen and to a lesser extent, fat & protein
What happens to excess amounts of ingested fat, protein, and CHO?
fat = stored in adipose tissue
protein = doesn't promote muscle development
cho = reduces fat catabolism, build glycogen stores & use for energy & fat synthesis
What is energy balance? Energy equilibrium?
balance: the relationship between energy intake and expenditure
equilibrium: when the amount of calories (intake) matches the expenditure
Explain positive vs. negative energy balance
positive: energy intake exceeds energy expended
negative: energy intake is less than energy expended
What are the 3 main purposes the body uses energy for?
basal metabolism, physical activity & the digestion, absorption and processing of ingested nutrients
Name some of the factors that increase basal metabolism.
muscle mass, age, body size
About how much energy is expended via the thermic effect of food?
TEF accounts for 5-10% of energy consumed per day. expenditure varies per individual
Explain adaptive thermogenesis and factors that trigger non-voluntary physical activity.
heat produced when the body expends energy for nonvoluntary physical activity triggered by cold conditions, overfeeding, trauma or starvation
What is the difference between direct and indirect calorimetry?
direct: estimates energy expenditure by measuring the amount of heat released by the body
indirect: collecting expired air from an individual from a specific amount of time
Be able to calculate your Estimated Energy Requirement (EER).
EER = 662 - (9.53 x your age) + PA x ( [ 15.91 x WT ] + [ 539.6 x HT ] )
What are the two factors that drive our desire to eat? Explain the differences between
hunger: physiological drive to find & eat food controlled by inner body mechanisms
appetite: psychological drive to eat, affected by external factors
What is satiety and what factors affect it?
feeling elicited by sensory aspects of food, knowledge of eating & chewing
Describe the process of satiety.
- flavor of food
- knowing a meal was eaten
- influence of stomach and intestinal expansion/activity
- influence of nutrient use in the liver & related communication w/ the hypothalamus/other brain regions
- conscious thinking takes place in the brain's cortex & can overcome hunger/satiety signals
What is the significance of ghrelin?
a hormone secretion made by the stomach that stimulates eating/increases food intake
Be able to calculate BMI
body weight in lbs x 703
height squared in inches
What are 3 techniques used to assess body fat? How do they differ from each other?
- skinfold thickness, measure fat layer of skin @ different sites
- bioelectrical impedance, painless low-energy current through the body
- dual energy xray absorptiometry (DEXA), most accurate, 1-4% error margin
What are the two different body shapes and which is at greatest risk for health problems?
apple: upper body fat distribution (more risk)
pear: lower body fat distribution
What are factors affecting body weight and composition?
genetics, environment, diseases & disorders
What are the 3 key components for a sound weight loss program?
control of energy intake, regular physical activity, behavior modification
What are 4 behaviors for successful weight maintainers?
- chain breaking
- stimulus control
- cognitive restructuring
- contingency management
- self monitoring
What are FAD diets and what are characteristics for each of the main types of FAD diets?
diets that claim unrealistic / miraculous weight loss & health
- recommendations that promise a quick fix
- dire warnings of danger from a product or regimen
- claims that are too good to be true
- simple conclusions from a complex study
- recommendation based on single study
- statements refuted by good sources
- list of "good" & "bad" food
- testimony, recommend with goal to sell
- lack of peer review in study
- studies that ignore groups of people
Explain the difference between eating disorders and disordered eating
disordered: mild, short term changes in eating patterns due to stress or events
eating disorder: mental, out of control
What kinds of nutrient therapies are appropriate for each eating disorder?
anorexia nervosa: gain trust/coop to start eating again, and slowly gain weight
bulimia nervosa: decrease amount of food in a binge to prevent esophageal tears when purging, understand consequences
binge-eating: develop better eating habits and take away misconceptions about food, keep food diary, no strict diets
What are the characteristics of a good exercise program? Know the different aspects of each that the book discusses
mode (type of exercise), duration, frequency (# of times weekly), intensity, progression of exercise, consistency & variety
Where is ATP stored and how much is yielded by the different pathways?
stored in small amounts in muscle; immediate short term & long term
What energy sources are associated with providing fuel for which exercises?
carbs: short term, high intensity & medium term
fat: prolonged, low intensity
protein: minor fuel sorce
What sources are associated with the different aerobic versus anaerobic pathways?
How does the body use muscle glycogen versus blood glucose for fuel?
muscle glycogen: short duration
What are some of the adaptations to endurance exercise training in the skeletal muscle?
Discuss the use of protein for energy
What is the VO2 max?
What are the different types of muscle fiber? How would you describe them, their structure, primary fuel source and activities they are associated with?
What are the energy, macronutrient and micronutrient needs of athletes?
How can glycogen stores be boosted?
What is the female athlete triad?
Discuss the fluid needs of athletes?
. What is water intoxication?
What are some general rules for pre-exercise, during, and post-exercise nutrient intake?
What are ergogenic aids?
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