3/5/1770 5 colonists were killed. Revere's engraving caused people to think about independence
Burning of the Gaspee
6/9/1772 Gaspee was designed to catch smugglers. R.I. had the best counterfeiters, smugglers, pirates, etc... The Gaspee ran aground chasing the Hannah
Took everyone off the ship and burned it = Treason
Signed The Declaration of Independence
7/4/1776 A letter to England saying we were breaking away and it politely said why.
Causes of the Civil War
Slaves, Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe, Tariffs, Kansas Nebraska Act, Bleeding Kansas, Sharles Sumner, Dred Scott, Harper's Ferry and the election of 1860.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Repealed the Missouri Compromise and allowed Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether or not the two states would have slaves through popular sovereignty. People began to move into Kansas and Nebraska to sway the vote. The act brought full on abolitionists and full on supporters of slavery together.
John Brown and his sons who hated slavery, broke into a person who was pro-slavery and killed 5 people with hatchets, the north supported this while the south hated it.
White man from Massachusetts, senator, anti-slavery. Was beaten unconscious with a cane on the floor of Congress by Preston Brooks because of comments Sumner made about his Uncle.
An enslaved man that lived in Missouri filed suit against his owner because he had once lived in a state where slavery was illegal, so he was free. The Supreme Court ruled seven to two against him because he was black and wasn't a citizen so he had no right to sue. He was private property and property cannot be lost based on where you go.
John Brown had planned to seize weapons from an arsenal to give to slaves so they could rise up but was surrounded and forced to surrender by soldiers under Robert E. Lee, Brown was executed and became a martyr for abolitionists.
The Election of 1860
Lincoln won, and said that he wasn't going to touch Southern slavery to keep the country together. He wasn't even on the ballot in 10 southern states. He won in November and took over in March. Right after he won, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Lincoln could not do anything and seven states left before he became president.
Capture Richmond Virginia, block southern ports, and capture the Mississippi River
First Battle of Bull Run
It was the first major land battle of the civil war and a major defeat for the union. As the union crossed the Bull Run stream, the Confederates routed the Union forces. The Union lost 3,000 men while the Confederates only lost 2,000. It was won through Southern tactics and proved the civil war was going to be long and drawn out.
The Battle of Antietam
General Lee had invaded the Union and had entered Maryland. McClellan had found Lee's plans and decided to go after Lee. The battle was fought at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Union had about 75,000 soldiers with another 25,000 in reserve. Against 40,000 Confederates. The Union lost 12,000 while the Confederates lost 14,000. The Union won the battle and the Confederates retreated. It was the bloodiest day of the war.
April-July 4th 1863 A confederate defended town on a bluff over the Mississippi River. The Union won and took control of the Mississippi.
Battle of Gettysburg
Was fought in Pennsylvania (Union) and lasted from July 1st to July 3rd 1863. The Union won the battle. The Confederacy would never attack on Union soil. It was the bloodies battle of the Civil War.
General Pickett was a Confederate General and he and the Confederates charged across an open field and the Confederates were massacred.
It freed all slaves in Confederate territory, this meant the war was partially being fought over slavery. It was done to keep Great Britain out of the war and keep them from siding with the Confederates.
Sherman's March to the Sea
Destroyed everything from Atlanta to Savannah to the Ocean. Made life horrible for the enemy to force surrender.
General Robert E. Lee Surrenders
He surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant on April 1st 1865.
Aftermath of the Civil War
620,000 Americans died and the union lost more soldiers. Most died from disease; dysentery which causes dehydration and diarrhea. In operating rooms, they had no antibiotics, vitamins/supplements, x-rays, transfusions and little anesthesia.
April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth. Booth was an actor in the play. He had killed Lincoln by shooting him in the back of the head.
He became the 17th president when Lincoln was assassinated. Johnson was a democrat, even though Lincoln was a republican.
People who wanted to punish the south for seceding from the union by giving former slaves land from their former owners, making blacks citizens and imprisoning confederate leaders. They were in control of congress during Andrew Johnson's presendency
Andrew Johnson's Impeachment
He was impeached for firing the secretary of war without the permission of congress. He was impeached but fell one vote short of removal.
The Presidential power to excuse a person from a federal crime. Andrew Johnson pardoned 13,000 people in 1865.
The South Kept Blacks from Voting
They used literacy tests, poll taxes, history tests, the grandfather clause (cannot vote unless your grandfather voted), and the KKK (The Ku Klux Klan).
The Ku Klux Klan
It was founded on Christmas Eve, 1865, by a group of drunk, white southerners. The group was formed to commemorate dead Confederate Soldiers. They wore white ghost costumes and tormented and killed blacks when they registered to vote. Some symbols of the KKK include their robes, hoods, the noose and the burning of the cross.
Supreme Court Defined 14th Amendment
In 1883, the Supreme Court said that the 14th Amendment only applies to states. People can discriminate.
1862, Congress passed the Railroad Act, which set up the building of the Transcontinental Railroad. One company would begin in California and the other company would begin in Nebraska. The two companies met in Promontory Point, Utah. As an incentive, Congress paid the companies by mile.
How the Railroad helped the economy
Travel, land was purchased, more jobs, more steel and iron workers, more lumberjacks, more coal miners, and it opened up new markets for products (crops could be shipped and sold across the country).
Negatives of the Railroad
Pollution, more issues with the Native Americans, and before a national system of time zones was implemented, train scheduling was confusing because towns independently set clocks using solar time.
Trail of Tears
It was part of the Indian Removal Process. In 1836, the Creeks were removed from their land and sent to Oklahoma. 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks died on the way to Oklahoma. The Cheyenne had signed a treaty to go to Oklahoma, but only 2000 originally agreed to go. The US Government sent in 7000 soldiers to remove the remaining Cheyenne. The Cherokees were also moved to Oklahoma.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The incident occurred in 1892 and the trial took place in 1896. The issue occurred when a Creole of Colors sat in a whites only car of an East Louisiana Railroad train car. Homer Plessy had deliberately referred to himself as black. Louisiana had decided to pass a law that made segregation of railways legal and a civil rights organization decided to challenge the law. The trial went all the way to the Supreme Court, where Plessy lost the trial 7 - 1 with one abstention. The Supreme Court ruled that segregation by color or race was legal as long as all races were treated equally.
The Black Codes
Laws that created virtual slavery for blacks, including curfews, vagrancy laws, labor contracts and land restrictions. This was the South's way of keeping blacks "in their place."
When someone works on a portion of someone else's in return for the same portion of the crop. The people that usually did this were former slaves.
The Presidential Election of 1876
In the election, 3 states had disputed results because of corruption and cheating in the election. After the dispute, the compromise of 1876 made the republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, president over the democratic candidate, Sam Tilden.
The Compromise of 1877
The compromise made Hayes president, removed the remaining federal troops from the south, gave money for rebuilding, ended Reconstruction, and Hayes agreed to put some democrats on his cabinet. By ending Reconstruction, things were worse for blacks.
Booker T. Washington
He wanted blacks to accept racism as long as whites treated them fairly. This was the Atlanta Compromise. He also said that there was nothing wrong with a blue-collar job.
The Homestead Act
It gave people who paid a fee 160 acres as long as they were 21 or head of the family, were citizens or were about to become citizens. The recipient had to build a house and farm the land for 5 years before they received the land.
The Sand Creek Masacre
They Cheyenne Tribe camped out at Sand Creek, Colorado, when Colonel John Chivington and 700 soldiers slaughtered between 150 and 500 Cheyenne. The victims were mostly women and children and they were killed while they were trying to surrender.
The Battle of Little Big Horn
In 1865, the government enraged the Sioux tribe by building a road through their territory, causing a two year war. In 1866, the Sioux killed more than 80 soldiers. Long after the end of the two year war, Colonel Custer claimed their was gold in the Sioux's Black Hills. Custer went to round up the Sioux and was engaged by more than 2000 Sioux warrior who easily defeated Custer's 264 soldiers. This battle was also known as Custer's Last Stand. After the battle, the US Army was sent in to push the Sioux back onto their reservation.
The Battle of Wounded Knee
After Sitting Bull was arrested, 120 men and 230 women and children from the the Sioux Tribe surrendered. While they were being disarmed, a shot was fired and the soldiers opened fire, killing 300 Sioux. This was the last real episode of violence between the Native Americans and the United States.
The Ghost Dance
The dance was part of a Native American purification ceremony where people joined hands and whirled in a circle. It made the Americans think that the Native Americans were restless and about to attack. The Native Americans were calling on spirits for help against the whites.
The leader of Nez Perce Tribe (Northwestern US, Oregon and Idaho). Chief Joseph had promised his dying father to never give up his land. Chief Joseph went on the run, trying to get to Canada, and was caught 30 miles from the border. He was sent to Oklahoma with the rest of his Tribe.
The Dawes Act
It divided reservation land into individual plots (about 160 acres). Native Americans who were the head of their family received a plot. The act offered Native Americans citizenship and set up schools to educate them. They hated the act because they did not want to be Americanized.
A town that was based upon the industry of receiving and slaughtering cattle and shipping beef. The first Cow Town was Abilene, Kansas.
A book written by Upton Sinclair, that was about the horrible conditions of the meat-packing industry. The book was realistic fiction and took place in Chicago. The factory would mix spoiled meat with the good meat, the roof leaked into the food, it was infested with insects and roaches, rats would get into the meat vats, and fingers and other lost body parts would be ground into the meat. After Theodore Roosevelt read this book, he began reform.
The first attempt to drill for oil was made in Titusville, Pennsylvania by Edwind Drake. The attempt was known as Drake's Folly, but turned out successfully.
The Bessemer Process
A fast and cheaper way to turn iron into steel. The process, developed by Henry Bessemer, allowed for the mass production of steel.
The government should not interfere with businesses and weak businesses will go bankrupt and strong businesses will profit.
The Sherman Antitrust Act
It outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce, but was ineffective for 15 years. It also made it illegal to limit or eliminate competition, making it illegal to form a monopoly.
Karl Marx came up with this system: The government would own all of the businesses eliminating the filthy rich and the extremely poor, making everyone economically equal.
The Communist Manifesto
It stated that the wealthy were too powerful and the middle class needed to turn this around.
Haymarket Square Riot
In 1886, in Chicago, people gathered to demonstrate for an 8 hour workday. When the demonstration became too big, the police tried to break up the crowd and resorted to violence. The demonstration the next day was against police brutality. Someone threw a bomb killing 11 people, 7 of which were police. Unions were blamed, 8 people were arrested and 7 were hanged.
The Homested Strike
In Pennsylvania, Henry Frick cut wages in the Carnegie Steel Company (Carnegie was in Scotland) causing the workers to go on strike. Frick then hired scabs, or people who take the jobs of strikers. He then hired the Pinkertons (a private security agency) to protect the new workers. A riot occurred when the scabs tried to enter the factory. 7 Pinkertons and 9 strikers were killed.
The Pullman Strike
In June, 1894, 260,000 Railway workers joined the Pullman Strike. The strike started one month earlier. The American Railway Union Started, which began the strike, resulted in the union gaining 150,000 new members. The strike began because wages were cut and workers could not afford the rent and prices in factory towns which were controlled by the factory owners. Because of the wage cuts, other union refused to work on any trains that had Pullman cars. The strike ended when railway owners argued defied antitrust laws. Grover Cleveland then sent in 2,500 federal troops because the strike disrupted the mail service.
Immigrants were mostly poor, uneducated, and unskilled. Before 1880, most immigrants were from Western Europe (70% Irish, English, etc...). After 1880, most immigrants were from Eastern Europe, (Italians, Russians, etc...), and spoke different languages.
First Wave, mostly Catholic, were discriminated against because of religion, when the US was mostly Protestant.
Under the Statue of Liberty. The statue came from France in 1886. Some were quarantined. The US took names and number of family members. American was seen as the land of opportunity, but most struggled. Many changed their family name to hide the fact that they were immigrants.
The Irish Potato Famine: 1846 - 49
The Irish could not grow potatoes because of a fungus. 1 million died and 2 million left out of the 4 - 5 million living in Ireland
A term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction. Prosperity covered up poverty and corruption.
Waving the Bloody Shirt
This meant recalling the bloodshed of the Civil War; republicans reminding the population that the democrats started the Civil War.
The Spoils System
The winner of an election that helps the people that got him elected. This caused unqualified people to get important jobs.
It is illegal because it adds more money to the economy and increases inflation. The Secret Service was created to stop this.
Struggles of the Farmer
Overproduction, drought, tariffs: Import taxes, importing machinery, railroads: No competition.
Wanted coining silver, wanted the government to control railroads and an 8 hour work day.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
A small fire broke out inside the factory and when the workers tried to escape, they found that doors were locked from the outside killing 146 workers. Led to the creation of building safety, regulation and fire code enforcement.
Telegraph & Morse Code (Samuel F. B. Morse); Phonograph (Thomas A. Edison); Light bulb (Thomas A. Edison); Telephone (Alexander Graham Bell)
Improvement of Electricity
Alternating Current (George Westinghouse);
Impact on Business and Daily Life - Improved productivity and transformed the nature of the workplace.
The Electric Sewing Machine
First made in 1899; Led to the growth of the ready-made clothing industry. Before the electric machine, workers had to physically push on a foot petal to generate power. With AC, a worker could produce more clothing in less time. As a result, the cost of producing each item of clothing decreased. Rapidly growing industries opened up thousands of jobs for Americans looking for employment. (Immigrants, especially women and children found jobs here.)
It was made possible and available by AC power. This invention reduced spoilage, and relieved the need to preserve foods by time-consuming means, such as smoking or salting; Not available to all Americans. Rural areas did not receive power for decades. Even when available, people could not afford the home appliances or other conveniences that ran on electricity.
One of the greatest hardships of immigrants was leaving loved ones behind. By 1900, thanks to many advances, such fears of isolation had diminished.
Lost-cost apartment buildings designed to house as many families as the owner could pack in. An area could be turned into a slum because of groups of these that are run-down and dirty.
Named for its shape, each building narrowed in the middle and gaps on either side formed air shafts to bring light and air to inside rooms because of NY law. However, people would throw their garbage in the middle because little fresh air reached them. Linked to diseases such as cholera and typhoid to contaminated drinking water, which residents drew from a common pipe or pump in the yard.
Boston, Cincinnati and New York built reservoirs or water works to collect clean water far from the cities and filter impurities. Companies later introduced chlorination and filtration.
An unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power and usually headed by a single, powerful "boss".
The use of one's job to gain profit and was used as a major source of income for political machines.
The Money Question
Money used to be backed by gold. You could exchange money for gold. The question was whether or not to coin silver.
People, especially farmers, began to demand "coining silver". The government could produce more money and when there is too much money, its value decreases. The farmers wanted to artificially create inflation.
Cross of Gold Speech
This speech, given by William Jennings Bryan, a populist and the democratic candidate in the election of 1896, was given at the 1896 Democratic Convention in Chicago. "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." This speech caused him to earn the nomination from both the democrats and the populists.
A loose association of businesses that make the same product that would agree to limit the supply of their product to keep prices high.
The bringing together of many firms in the same business. This method was practiced by John D. Rockefeller.
System in which workers are paid not by the time worked, but by the number of items they produced.
Division of Labor
Way of producing in which different tasks are performed by different people. Factory workers would usually perform one small task over and over and over again, and rarely saw the finished product.
An economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of the means of production.
A union for laborers devoted to a specific craft. Rather than organizing all workers, they sought to organize only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions.
The process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers. Workers acting as a group had more power than a single worker acting alone.
To strengthen collective bargaining power, some unions pushed for a workplace where only union members would be hired.
Union that organizes workers from all crafts in a given industry. The primary purpose of these were to protect the wages and rights of all the employees, skilled or unskilled.
Events and conditions that either force (push) people to move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so.
Morrill Land-Grant Act
This law passed by Congress in 1862 distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
A person who buys up large areas of land in the hope in selling them later for a profit.
An African American who migrated to the west after the Civil War. 50,000 or more went west during this time period.
The process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture.
Settlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian Territory for settlement.
People who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began in 1889.
A mining technique in which miners shoveled loose dirt into boxes and then ran water over the dirt to separate it from gold or silver particles.
Farms controlled by large businesses, managed by professionals, and raising massive quantities of single cash crops.
1893 theory of Frederick Jackson Turner that claimed the frontier had played a key role in forming the American character.
The federal government's plan for the makeup and quantity of the nation's money supply.
Gold or silver coins or United States treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver. To prevent inflation and to stabilize the economy, Congress put the nation's currency on a gold standard.
Law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
A law passed by Congress in 1890 to increase the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month.
A payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries, such as railroads.
Pros of Imperialism
Natural resources, allies, military bases, trade and markets for products, that were both captive and free.
The government should play a very limited role in business. Doctrine stating that government generally should not interfere in private business.
Long history of staying to themselves, in 1853, Commander Matthew Perry sailed a fleet of ships into Tokyo Harbor to intimidate the Japanese into trading with the U.S.
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities that people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays.
In 1867, William Seward, the Secretary of State under Andrew Johnson, purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (1-2 cents per acre). Most Americans hated the purchase and called it Seward's folly. However, Alaska held tons of natural resources.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Reformed the spoils system by creating the Civil Service Commission which classified government jobs and tested applicant's for them.
In the late 1800's, the U.S. had an agreement that allowed U.S. ships to refuel in Hawaii by leasing Pearl Harbor. A new constitution put planters in control. However when the King died, his sister became queen. She was Queen Lil. She did not like the American presence in Hawaii and stated that "Hawaii was for the Hawaiians". The U.S. helped Sanford B. Dole take over the island by sending in U.S. Marines. The queen was removed and put in prison and Hawaii was annexed.
Munn v. Illinois
In 1877, the Supreme Court, allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads.
Spanish colony since the 1700's, and by the mid 1800's, Spain had lost most of it's colonies in the Americas, and after Cuba tried to revolt again in the 1890's, Spain cracked down on the Cubans and were killing, imprisoning, and mistreating Cubans. McKinley sent the U.S.S Maine to Cuba, in Havana harbor. The U.S. Maine exploded (accident), and yellow journalism caused the U.S. to blame Spain. Thus starting the Spanish American War.
Writing stories that are sensationalized (exaggerated) to get readers/subscribers.
A violent massacre of Jews which swept across Russia in the 1880's, the Jews faced hostility from their Christian neighbors and the government. The czar to the pogroms by sharply limiting where Jews could live and work. America offered freedom of religion and the opportunity to build a new life.
A large open area beneath the ship's deck with limited toilet facilities, no privacy, and poor food, but tickets were relatively cheap, and were affordable to most immigrants.
In 1892, the federal government required all new immigrants to undergo a physical examination and those who were found to have a contagious disease such as tuberculosis faced a time of isolation to prevent the spread of a disease.
Urban neighborhoods in which one ethnic or racial group dominated, many immigrants chose to live near others of their ethnic group because of the comfort of familiar language and traditions. These ethnic communities strongly reflected the culture of the homeland.
Other urban ghettos resulted from agreements among homeowners no to sell real estate to certain groups of people. African Americans, Mexicans, Asian Americans, and Jews were prevented from buying land or houses in better neighborhoods.
Chinese Exclusion Act
A law passed in 1882 that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country, but did not prevent entry of those who had previously established U.S. residence.
A 1907 agreement between the U.S. and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration, but was not an official document.
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society.
A term coined by philosopher Auguste Comte to describe the study of how people interact with one another in a society.
Battle of Manila Bay
The first battle of the Spanish American War was fought in the Spanish Colony of the Philippines because the U.S. had ships in the area. Commodore George Dewey won the battle for the U.S. and there were no American deaths.
Battle of San Juan Hill, Cuba
The second battle of the Spanish American War. Teddy Roosevelt had led the rough riders up San Juan Hill. After the battle the U.S. had won the war.
A bunch of untrained and soldiers that Roosevelt literally led up San Juan Hill during the battle on horseback.
Outcomes of the Spanish American War
The U.S. won and Spain lost Cuba and the U.S. took the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Wake Island, but gave Spain $20 million as compensation.
Built over a period of seven years and was built because it was necessary for defense. The U.S. went to Panama and helped them gain their independence so the U.S. could build the canal. (The U.S. had asked Nicaragua first, but it would have costed too much). Roosevelt also went to see the canal while it was being built and became the first U.S. president to leave the U.S. while in office.
Issues of the Canal
Before the canal could be built, the U.S. had to get rid of the malarial mosquitoes in Panama. To do this the U.S. got rid of still water, drained swamps and introduced screens. Currently, the canal is being widened because some ships cannot pass through.
It stated that the U.S. could not annex Cuba and could only leave the island to the Cubans.
It stated that further attempts by European nations to colonize the Americas would be taken as an act of aggression, but the U.S. would not interfere with current European colonies.
A statement that is connected to the Monroe Doctrine that stated that the U.S. would intervene in conflicts between European countries and their colonies and would act as the police of the western hemisphere.
Spheres of Ifluence
Areas in China dominated by a foreign country. People wanted to have influence in China, one example of this was Hong Kong, an area dominated by the British. The Chinese resented these areas.
A Chinese campaign to get rid of foreigners in China and after the movement began to kill off people, foreign troops were sent in to stop it.
World War I
Also known as The Great War, and lasted from 1914-1918, and the U.S. was only involved from 1917-1918.
Causes of World War I
Nationalism: Having pride in your country, to the point when you believe your nationality is superior.
Imperialism/Militarism: People wanted colonies and built up large militaries to get them.
Alliances: When countries have each other's backs. Alliances keep wars from happening, but when one starts, Alliances drag others in.
The Spark that started World War I
The assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne, and Archduke of Austria-Hungary. He was killed by Gavrillo Princip. Austria-Hungary blamed Sebia and then declared war. Russia, Serbia's ally, declared war on Austria-Hungary, then Germany declared war on Russia, then Great Britain declared war on Germany, and then Bulgaria declared war on Great Britain, etc...
You dig a ditch about five feet wide, five feet deep, and miles long. The land in between was called No-man's land. They had machine guns, poison gas and gas masks, tanks, airplanes, and blimps.
The U.S. Gets Dragged In
The Germans Sank the Lusitania.
Stopped following the Sussex Pledge after about 10 months.
The Zimmerman Note
The U.S. declared war on April 2nd, 1917.
Germany promised to warn ships before they sank them so people could escape. The Germans stopped this after about 10 months.