280 terms



Terms in this set (...)

BMI of 25-29.9 or between 25lbs to 30lbs overweight
Muscle imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
BMI of 30+ or at least 30lbs over recommend weight
Body Mass Index
18.5-24.9 recommend
66% Americans overweight
34% obese (72mil)
Blood lipids
Cholesterol and triglycerides, carried in the bloodstream by protein molecules.

HDL= good
LDL= bad

Less than 200mg/DL healthy

More than 240 = high risk
Insulin deficiency, impairs carb usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins
Type 1 diabetes
Pancreas doesn't produce insulin
Type 2 diabetes
Obesity, 90-95% of diabetes. Cells are resistant and do not allow insulin to bring glucose into the cell
Low back pain
80% of adults (office work, sitting too long, manual labor)
Knee injury
80,000-100,000 ACL injuries. 70% noncontact injuries.
Loss of physical fitness, muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility and lack of core and joint stability.
Proprioceptively enriched environment
Unstable yet controlled physical situation. Force body to us balance and stabilization
OPT Model
Stabilization endurance
Strength endurance
Strength hypertrophy
Strength max strength
Phase 1: stabilization endurance
Increase muscular endurance and stability while developing neuromuscular efficiency (coordination).
Muscular endurance
Muscles ability to contract for an extended period of time
Neuromuscular efficiency
All muscles efficiently working together in all planes of motion (coordination)
Phase 2: strength endurance
Enhance stabilization while increasing prime mover strength
Mod loads and reps
8-12 reps
Prime mover
The muscle that acts as the initial source of motive power
Set of two exercises performed back to back
Phase 3: hypertrophy
Goal of muscle growth.
High volume
Moderate to high loads
6-12 reps
Phase 4: max strength
Goal of max prime mover strength-

heavy loads
Low reps (1-5)
Longer rest
Rate of force production
Muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
Phase 5: power
Development of speed and power

As fast as can be controlled
Human movement system
Nervous, muscular and skeletal systems
Kinetic chain
Nervous, muscular and skeletal system
Nervous system
Billions of cells- communication network
Divided into central and peripheral
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Nerves that connect brain to spinal cord to the rest of the body
Sensory function
Ability of CNS to sense change in external/internal environment
Integrative function
Nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory info to allow decision making and response
Motor function
Neuromuscular response to sensory info
The functional unit of the nervous system
Sensory neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites via receptors to brain and spinal cord
Transmit nerve impulses from on neuron to another
Motor neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from brain and spinal cord to effector sites
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
Muscle spindles
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
Golgi tendon organ
Will cause muscle to relax
Joint receptors
Surround a joint and respond to pressure, acceleration and deceleration of the joint
Skeletal system
The body's frame work composed of bones and joints
Axial skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
Appendicular skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that includes upper and lower extremities
Resorption and formation of bone
A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue
A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation
Types of bones
The end of long bonrs
Shaft portion of a long bone
Epiphyseal plate
Connecting diaphysis to the epiphysis
Joint motion
Synovial joints
Joints held together by a joint capsule and ligaments.. Most associated with movement in the body
Primary connective tissue that connects bone together and provides stability
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle
the corrective tissue that surrounds the fascicles
The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force.
functional nut of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
Neural Activation
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Motor Unit
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
Type 1 Muscle Fibers
slow-twitch, smaller and slower to produce maximal tension, more resistant to fatigue.
Type 2 Muscle Fibers
fast-twitch, larger in size, quick to produce maximal tension and fatigue more quickly
Agonist Muscle
The muscle most responsible for movement
Synergist muscle
muscle that assists a prime mover
Stabilizer muscle
supports and stabilizes the muscles during movement
Antagonist Muscle
muscle that performs opposite action of the prime mover
Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues
A protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin.
Adrenal gland
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. They secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
A male sex hormone produced by the testes; women secrete smaller amounts of testosterone from the adrenal cortex and ovary. plays a role in growth and repair of tissue
A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males.
A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, which sit on top of the kidneys; it is secreted in response to stress and helps trigger the changes of the fight or flight response, including increased blood glucose, altered immune function, and reduction in nonessential body functions. Catabolic Hormone= tissue breakdown

poor sleep
inadequate nutrition
Growth Hormone
Released from pituitary gland, - stimulated by testosterone, estrogen, deep sleep, vigorous exercise. increases bone, muscle tissue and protein synthesis, fat burring and strengthens immune system.
Thyroid Hormones
located at the base of the neck. hormones produced by the thyroid gland primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism
Cardiorespiratory System
a system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
Cardiovascular System
A system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
Space between the lungs
Sinoatrial Node
pacemaker of the heart, located in right atrium which initiates electrical impulses that determine the HR.
Atroventricular Node
receives heartbeat impulses from the SA node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles
superior heart chamber that receives blood from veins and forces it into the ventricles
inferior chamber, forces blood into arteries
stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each contraction
heart rate
rate at which the heart pumps
cardiac output
Heart rate x stroke volume
fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. carries nutrients and oxygen to parts of the body and rids the body of waste
blood vessels
network of hollow tubes that circulate blood thru body
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Exchange vessels (water and chemicals) between blood and the tissues
vessels that carry blood back to the heart
small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries
the very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
respiratory system
a system of organs that collects oxygen from external environments and transports it to the bloodstream
respiratory pump
composed of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration
The movement of air into the respiratory tract.
the process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body
getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO 2max)
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
the study of energy in the human body
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
exercise metabolism
the examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
Main source of energy. All carbs are eventually broken down into simple sugars.
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbs, fat and at times protein

main source of energy!
Complex carbohydrate made in the body, stored in the liver and muscle of humans. When carb energy is need, it is converted into glucose
help body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. two types- saturated/unsaturated
the chemical form in which most fat exists in foods as well as in the body
A molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids
adenosine triphosphate
energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body
adenosine diphosphate
a high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed
ATP-PC System
This energy system is used for short, quick energy requirements and will provide energy for muscle contraction for up to 10-15 seconds

lifting heavy load, low reps

immediate energy
Glycolytic System
chemical breakdown of glucose

produces a greater amount of energy 30-50sec
8-12 reps

short term energy
Oxidative System
the primary source of ATP at rest and during low-intensity activities (carbs,fats)

long term energy (aerobic)
Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise.
The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
position above a point of reference
position below a point of reference
position nearest the center of body or point of reference
position farthest the center of body or point of reference
on the front of body
on the back of body
Towards the middle of body
towards outside of body
opposite side of body
same side of body
sagittal plane
vertical division of the body into right and left portions

flexion and extension movements
Bending of a joint
frontal plane
Divides the body into front and back portions.

adduction and abduction movements
transverse plane
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions

rotation movements
eccentric muscle action
An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening
concentric muscle action
Moving in the opposite direction of force. Accelerates or produces force while contracting the muscle
When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle.
isotonic muscle action
force is produced, muscle tension is developed, movement occurs through a given ROM
isometric muscle action
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length
isokinetic muscle action
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion
an influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object
length-tension relationship
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length.
force- velocity curve
the relationship of a muscle's ability to produce tension at differing shortening velocities
muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
rotary motion
Movement of the bones around the joints
a force that causes rotation
motor behavior
Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli
motor control
How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response
motor learning
repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements
motor development
The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan
muscle synergies
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement.
sensorimotor integration
The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.
the use of sensory info and sensorimotor integration to help the HMS in motor learning
internal feedback
(sensory feedback)
The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
external feedback
Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment.
fitness assessment
a series of measurements
physical activity readiness questionnaire
used to asses the saftey and risk of begining an exercise regime.
gathering relevant background info from a client.
specific health questions.
Objective information
measurements - height, weight, body comp, body fat..
heart rate training zones
Zone one 65-75%
builds aerobic base and aids in recovery

Zone two 76%-85%
increases aerobic and anaerobic endurance

Zone three 86%-95%
builds high-end work capacity
blood pressure
the pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels after the blood is ejected from the heart
The top number on a blood pressure
the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts
second number of a blood pressure reading; measurement of the pressure on artery walls when the heart is relaxed
good blood pressure
skinfold measurements
Iliac crest
Body Mass Index
22-24.9 good

weight (lbs)/height (inches2)x703
YMCA 3-min step test
cardio fitness assessment
1. 3 minute step 96 steps per minute

2. within 5sec of completion measure
HR for 60sec
Rockport Walk Test
cardio fitness assessment

1 mile walk as fast as possible

record time, and clients HR

use formula
static posture
how an individual physically presents him/herself in a stance
pronation distortion system
Foot Pronation (flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated kneed (knock knees)
lower crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by an anterior pelvic tilt to the pelvis (arched lower back)
upper crossed syndrome
Rounded shoulder and/or forward head posture
kinetic checkpoint
1. foot and ankle
2. knee
3. lumbo-pelvic hip complex (LPHC)
4. Shoulders
5. Head and Cervical spine
Overhead Squat Assessment
• Designed to assess dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance, and overall neuromuscular control. Shown to reflect lower extremity movement patterns during jump-landing tasks. Knee valgus(knock-knees) during overhead squat test is influenced by decreased hip abductor and hip external rotation strength, increased hip adductor activity, and restricted ankle dorsiflexion.
Overhead Squat Excessive forward lean
Overactive (tight)
hip flexor
abdominal complex

Underactive (weak)
anterior tibialis
glutes max
erector spinae
Overhead Squat Low Back Arches
Overactive (tight)
hip flexor complex
erector spinae
latissimus dorsi
underactive (weak)
intrinsic core stabilizers
Overhead Squat Arms Fall Forward
Overactive (tight)
latissimus dorsi
Terrace major
pectoral is major minor

underactive (weak)
mid lower trapezius
rotator cuff
Overhead Squat feet turn out
Overactive (tight)
Solias lateral
biceps femoris

underactive (weak)
medial Gastrocnemus
medial hamstring complex
gracious sartorial
Overhead Squat knees move inward
Overactive (tight)
adductor complex
biceps Femoris
vastus lateralis

underactive (weak)
glute med/max
vastus medial is oblique
Pushing Assessment Low Back Arches
overactive (tight)
hip flexors
erector spinae

underactive (weak)
intrinsic core stabilizers
Pushing Assessment shoulder elevation
overactive (tight)
upper trapz
levator scapulae

mid/low traps
Pushing Assessment Head moves forward
overactive (tight)
upper trapz
levator scapulae

deep cervical flexors
Pulling Assessment Low Back Arches
overactive (tight)
hip flexors
erector spinae

underactive (weak)
intrinsic core stabilizers
Pulling Assessment shoulder elevation
upper trapz
levator scapulae

mid/low traps
Pulling Assessment head protrudes forward
overactive (tight)
upper trapz
levator scapulae

deep cervical flexors
Push- Up test
Measures muscular endurance of the upper body , primarily the pushing muscles
Davies Test
designed to assess upper body extremity agility and stabilization

not good for clients who lack shoulder stability

push-up position-when client moves right hand to touch left hand, etc
Shark skill test
designed to assess lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control.

box grid, single leg hop
upper extremity strength assessment: bench press
designed to estimate 1RM

start 8-10reps
1 min rest
add 10-20lbs
2 min rest
repeat steps until client achieves failure between 2-10reps
use chart to estimate 1RM
lower extremity strength assessment: Squat
designed to estimate 1RM

start 8-10reps
1 min rest
add 30-40lbs
2 min rest
repeat steps until client achieves failure between 2-10reps
use chart to estimate 1RM
the normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full ROM of a joint
Capability to be elongated or stretched
dynamic range of motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently.
neuromuscular efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
postural distortion patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances
relative flexibility
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.
muscle imbalance
alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
reciprocal inhibition
The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place
altered reciprocal inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
synergist dominance
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate and muscles take over the function of the weak or inhabits prime mover.
The motions of joints in the body
arthrokinetic dysfunction
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
muscle spindles
receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
golgi tendon organs
receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change

cause muscle to relax, which prevents injuries
autogenic inhibition
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
pattern overload
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
cumulative cycle injury
tissue trauma
muscle spasm
altered neuromuscular control
muscle imbalance
Davis's Law
states that soft tissue models along the lines of stress
The Flexibility Continuum
systematic progression..

Three types of flexibility continuum, corrective, active, and functional.
corrective flexibility
designed to increase joint Range of Motion, improve muscle imbalances and correct altered joint motion.

static stretching
active flexibility
The type of flexibility designed to improve extensibility of soft tissue and increase neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition.

active isolated stretching
functional flexibility
Integrated multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control through full ROM

dynamic stretching
cardiorespiratory fitness
The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
integrated cardiorespiratory training
Cardiorespitory training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespitory system
general warm-up
Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow

specific warm-up
Low intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow

cool - down phase
provides body with a smooth transition from exercise back to a steady state of rest.

Maximal oxygen consumption
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
oxygen uptake reserve
Difference between resting and max oxygen consumpution
Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training, resulting in fatigue (which is also caused by a lack of proper rest and recovery).
lumbar spine
Pelvic Girdle
hip joint
Local Stabilization System
muscle that attach dirtily to the vertebrae
Consist primarily of slow twitch type I fibers with high density of muscle spindles. Work to limit excessive compressive, shear, and rotational forces between spinal segments.
Transverse abdominis, internal obliques, multifidus, pelvic floor musculature, diaphragm
global stabilization
• Muscles of global stabilization system attach from pelvis to the spine. These transfer loads between upper extremity and lower extremity, provide stability between pelvis and spine, and provide stabilization and eccentric control of the core during functional movements

Quadratus lumborum, psoas major, external obliques, internal obliques, rectus abdominis, gluteus medius, adductor complex
movement system
Muscles that attach the spine and/or pelvis to extremities
Concentric and Eccentric deceleration during functional activities
Latissimus dorsi, hip flexor, hamstring, quad
drawing-in maneuver
A maneuver used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing the navel in toward the spine.
when you have contracted both the abdominal, lower back, and buttock muscles at the same time
effects of joint dysfunction
joint dysfunction ->
muscle inhibition ->
joint injury ->
swelling ->
altered proprioception
rate of force production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
plyometric (reactive) training
exercise that generate quick , powerful movements involving an explosive concentric muscle contraction preceded by an eccentric muscle action
intergrated performance paradigm
to move with efficency, forces must be dampened (eccentrically) stabilized (isometrically) and the accelerated (concentrically) .
Eccentric phase
first stage of plyometric movement, classified as eccentric phase, but also called deceleration, yielding, counter movement. phase increases muscle spindle activity by pre stretching the muscle before activation
amorization phase
dynamic stabilization and is the time between the end of the eccentric muscle action and the initiation of the concentric contraction
concentric phase
In reactive training, which phase is considered the unloading phase
the ability to move the body in ntended direction as fast as possible
stride rate
The number of strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance)
stride length
The distance with each stride.
frontside mechanics
Proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis.
backside mechanics
Proper alignment of the rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantarflexion, knee extension, hip extension, and neutral pelvis.
the ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize and change direction quickly while maintaing proper posture
The ability to react and change body position with maximum rate for force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
general adaptation syndrome
(GAS) how body adapts to stress
Alarm reaction
1st stage reaction to stressor.

phase 1 of GAS; sudden activation sympathetic nervous system; mobilize resources.
delayed onset muscle soreness
Describes muscle pain and soreness that typically occurs within 24 to 48 hours following strenuous exercise. It can result in restricted range of motion, tenderness and muscle weakness for a short period.
resistance development
The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor.
A prolonged intolerable stressor that produces fatigue and leads to a breakdown in the system or injury is called?
Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages
priniciple of specificity
SAID principle

body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.
mechanical specificity
Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.
neuromuscular specificity
Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
metabolic specificity
Refers to the energy demand placed on the body.
muscular edurance
the ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time
the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load
muscular hypertrophy
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension
the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest amount of time
single-set system
performing one set of each exercise
multiple set
performing a multiple number of sets for each exercise
pyramid set
Increasing (or decreasing) the weight with each set
Performing two exercises in rapid succession with minimal rest
Performing a set to failure, then removing a small percentage of the load and continuing with the set
circuit training
A series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest
peripheral heart action
A variation of circuit training that uses different exercises (upper and lower body) for each set through the circuit
A routine that trains different body parts on separate days
vertical loading
Performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other, in a vertical manner down the template.
horizontal loading
Performing all sets of an exercise (or body part) before moving on to the next exercise (or body part)
program design
A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a specific goal.
acute variables
Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed.
muscular endurance training
tempo 4/2/1
rest interval 0-90sec
50-70% intensity
12-20 reps
1-3 sets
hypertrophy training
tempo 2/0/2
rest interval 0-60sec
75-85% intensity
6-12 reps
3-5 sets
Max Strength training
tempo as fast as can be controlled
rest 3-5min
85-100% intensity
1-5 reps
Power training
tempo as fast as can be controlled
rest 3-5min
30-45% of 1RM or 10% of bodyweight
1-10 reps
ATP and PC replenishment
20-30sec = 50%
40sec =75%
60sec = 85-90%
3min 100%
youth training
children do not produce sufficient levels of glycolytic enzymes to be able to sustain bouts of high intensity exercise

do not do well in hot and humid environments
senior training
degeneration associated with aging- osteoporosis, arthritis (osteoarthritis), low back pain, obesity.
a general term that refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arteries
buildup of fatty plaques in arteries that leads to narrowing and reduced blood flow
peripheral vascular disease
a group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked. typically as a result of atherosclerosis
the condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass
A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy
training for obese clients
low impact
5 days per week
60-80% MHR
push/pull test/squat/single-leg if possible
seated and standing positions
Medical release
training for diabetes client
low impact
4-7days per week
50-905 MHR
push/pull test/OH squat/single-leg if possible
phases 1&2
appropriate footwear, have snack,
smr only if physician advices
Low blood sugar