51 terms

Electricity and Magnetism

5th Grade Science
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Terms in this set (...)

Electric Charges
Tiny particles of atoms that carry units of electricity. The charges are what give you the shock.
Static Electricity
An electric charge that builds up on a material.
Electrically Neutral
Matter that has the same number of positive and negative charges
Negatively Charged
Matter that has more negative than positive charges. .
Positively Charged
Matter that has more positive than negative electric charges.
Like Charges
Electric charges that are the same (all positive or all negative). These charges repel or push away from each other.
What happens if two positively charged balloons are brought near each other?
They will repel each other.
Unlike Charges
Electric charges that are different (some negative and some positive). These charges attract or pull toward each other.
What is a built up electric charged called?
Static Electricity
What causes the build up of like charges in an object?
friction or rubbing against something.
What can cause you to feel a shock if you walk across a carpet and then touch a metal doorknob?
Static Electricity.
How do you produce a charge on a rubber balloon?
Rubbing a balloon with different items can either produce a negative or positive charge. For example, you could use wool or plastic wrap.
How do we make electric energy useful?
By controlling the movement of charged particles instead of allowing them to build up we can use the electric charges to produce light, heat, etc.
Electric Current
The constant flow of electric charges. Used to toast a piece of bread for example. When
How is an electric current used?
Used to toast a piece of bread for example. When the toaster is turned on, electric charges flow out of the outlet. The charges move through the copper wire in the cord to heating coils in the toaster. The charge moves through the heating coils and causes them to get hot. The heated coils toast the bread. Charges return to the outlet through the other wire in the cord.
Speculation
To ponder or think deeply. To make a guess without conclusive evidence.
Conductors
materials through which negatively charged particles can move easily.
Examples of Good Conductors
Metals such as copper, gold and silver. Aluminum foil. Water and living things.
Insulators
materials through which electric charges do not flow easily.
Examples of Insulators
Rubber, plastic, wood, and glass.
What happens to a wire if an electric current runs through it for an extended period of time?
It will heat up. This is why electric circuits use a rubber casing around the wire to act as an insulator.
Electric Circuit
A complete closed pathway of conductors that allows electricity to flow through it. It is a closed pathway - no openings or gaps.
Simple Circuit
An electric circuit comprised of a source of electricity, a conductor of electricity and a an time you wish to provide power to. Example- battery, bulb and some sort of wire.
Switch
When added to a simple circuit this tool allows you to control the flow of electricity. When you flip the switch on, you close the circuit and the bulb lights up. When you flip the switch off, you open the circuit and the light bulb goes off.
electric cell
a device that turns chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery is an example.
If you have a battery and bulb, what else do you need to complete a simple circuit?
Wires
How can you tell if a circuit is open or closed?
If all parts of the circuit connect, it is closed.
Does flipping a switch on open or close a circuit?
It closes a circuit so electricity can flow to the bulb. The bulb will light up.
Does flipping a switch off open or close a circuit?
It opens a circuit and interrupts the flow of electricity to the bulb. It will not light.
Why do you think most circuits have switches?
To allow for control of the flow of electricity. You would flip the switch on when you want to light the bulb rather than having a constant flow of electricity.
What three parts must every working circuit have?
A power source, a conductor and an object that uses an electric current.
Magnet
An object that attracts certain metals. The particles are lined up. It has a magnetic field and magnetic poles.
Magnetic Field
The space in which a magnet's force can act..
Magnetic Poles
The places on a magnet where it's force is the greatest.
How do magnets work?
The unlike poles of two magnets attract each other. The like poles of two magnets repel each other. So objects with a charge unlike the magnet will be attracted to the magnet. But objects with like charges to the magnet will not be drawn to it.
What is the most likely reason a magnet would neither repel or attract a metal object?
The metal is not magnetic.
In order for two magnets to attract each other, what do the poles need to be?
Opposite.
Electromagnet
A strong temporary magnet. It uses electricity to produce magnetism. Together the electricity and magnetism produce energy of motion.
How does an electromagnet work?
As electricity flows through wire, it creates a magnetic field around the wire. The magnetic field is weak. If the wire is wrapped around an iron nail, the iron becomes magnetized and the field becomes stronger, and causes objects to move.
Examples of electromagnets at work
They are used in cars, appliances like blenders, computer disk drives, doorbells, and cranes.
What are two advantages of using an electromagnet versus a bar magnet?
Electromagnets are stronger than bar magnets and have switches that allow the you to control the flow of electricity. You have the ability to control movement of the object.
What makes an electromagnet different from a bar magnet?
It can be turned off and on.
How do you increase the strength of an electromagnet?
By wrapping more wire around the iron core.
What are the parts of an electromagnet?
An electrical current, wire and an iron core.
How would you make an electromagnet using an iron nail, wire and an electrical current?
Wrap the iron nail with the wire and connect the wire to the source of the electrical current.
Do scientists and engineers work with electromagnets at a hydroelectric plant?
True. Both are qualified to use them.
If you and your science partner create an electrical circuit during and experiment in class, what is the most important safety precaution to take before you turn on the switch?
Ask you teacher if it is ok to turn it on.
The constant flow of electric charges is called?
Electric current
When does an object have an overall positive charge?
When the object has more positive than negative charges.
Why would adding a switch to an electric circuit be useful?
The switch allows you to control the flow of electricity. If you aren't using the object being powered you don't need it on. For example, adding a light switch will allow you to turn the light on when you need it and off when you don't. Or you can switch off the oven when you aren't using it rather than having it run when you aren't cooking food.
Why don't magnets attract wooden objects.
Magnets attract metals that contain iron. Wood does not contain iron.

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