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American History Chapter 15
Terms in this set (57)
"Europe First" strategy
Allies strategy to defeat Hitler in Europe before fighting Japan and Italy
U-Boat "wolf packs"
Groups of German U-boats to terrorize the sea lanes in the Atlantic Ocean to stop American ships from crossing to England.
General Eisenhower's North African Campaign
Commanded the Allied invasion of North Africa to push out Italians and Germans.
George S. Patten "Old Blood and Guts"
An innovative tank commander who told Eisenhower to put American forces in North Africa.
Giving up completely without any concessions. Churchill and FDR decided to increase the bombing of Germany and to next invade Italy and also to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender from Germany, giving up completely without any concessions.
tactic of dropping massive amounts of bombs in order to inflict maximum damage.
tactic of dropping bombs on key political and industrial targets.
African American fighter squadron that escorted the bombers to and from the bomb sites. They were very effective
Commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific who knew the plans because we broke the Japanese code so he concentrated all of his forces at Midway.
Battle of Midway
A resounding American victory as we sank 4 Japanese aircraft to our 1 and the Japanese never went on the offensive again, making Midway the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
Battle of Guadalcanal
First American offensive in the Pacific. after 3 months of heavy fighting the Americans pushed the Japanese off the island.
Why did Roosevelt support a "Europe First" strategy even though it was Japan that had first attacked the United States?
Because he knew that until Hitler was defeated, the Pacific would be a 'secondary threat' of war; our allies were in Europe
Describe the horrible conditions during the siege of Stalingrad. Why is this considered a "turning point" in the Eastern Front?
Intense fighting, left 4 million people dead.
Turning point because it ended any realistic plans Hitler had of dominating Europe.
Was the Allied invasion of Italy a success? Giver reasons for your answer.
Yes, gave allies complete control of the Western Mediterranean, ended the rule of Mussolini.
How does the Battle of Midway illustrate the importance if intelligence gathering and espionage in modern warfare?
We knew where and when they were coming.
Why is the victory at Midway considered a "turning point" in the central Pacific?
Ended the Japanese advance.
A. Philip Randolph's "Double-V" Campaign
African American leader who led the Double V campaign which called for victory against fascism abroad and victory against discrimination at home. Approached FDR directly about ending discriminatory practices in government jobs and organized a protest in D.C.
Executive Order 8802
WWII measure that assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to ensure thus was the case. Issued by FDR so protest would not happen and harm unity.
Congress of Racial Equality; an organization that sought to apply non-violent protests as a means of fighting segregation. Did not end segregation but did lead to the end.
Partnership with Mexico where Mexicans were encouraged to come to the United States to work on American farms.
Japanese-American internment and Executive Order 9066
Temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group (the Japanese) designating certain areas as war zones from which anyone might be removed for any reason.
Korematsu v. United States
Japanese Americans sued the US government in order to force them to stop the internment. The Supreme Court upheld the government's wartime internment policy and did not reverse this decision until 1988.
442nd Regimental Combat Team
WWII unit made up of Japanese-American volunteers, sent to fight in Italy and became the most decorated military unit in American history.
Sold by the US government to civilians and after a set amount of time the buyers turn the bond back in and receive the principal plus interest.
government-controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime.
Office of War Information
Worked closely with the media to highlight positive stories about soldiers fighting in the war. The goal was to boost morale at home by making Americans feel good about the war and to forget about domestic issues like discrimination and poverty.
Planted by Americans to contribute to the war effort by planting their own food instead of buying fruits and vegetables.
Describe population shifts in the US during WWII.
Mexicans moved to farm land in America.
Rural to urban became more prominent.
Predict two possible consequences for wartime women factory workers ("Rosie the Riveter") when men began to return from overseas after the war.
Lose their jobs or keep their jobs.
How were the causes of the Detroit race riots and the Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots similar?
Migration of minorities entering urban areas 'taking the white men's jobs'.
How much did WWII cost, how did the government pay for these expenses?
330 billion dollars, used war bonds and income tax to pay for it.
Do you think the federal government was justified in limiting individual freedom by imposing wage and price controls and by rationing during wartime? Why or why not?
would be good because it gives the government more money to use for the war and helping pay the billions they've spent
Why do you think people collected paper, scrap metal, and fats? (look online if you need more information)
They can be recycled for the war effort.
Many labor groups made "no strike" pledges at the start of the war. What was the problem with "wildcat strikes"? [not in textbook-- look online]
Went on strikes out of desperation and often turned violent.
General Eisenhower Supreme Commander Allied Forces
It was decided the second front would be opened with an amphibious invasion of France's northern coast.
D-Day landing of Europe (Operation Overload)
June 6, 1944, the day the Allies landed on the beaches of Normandy, France
Battle of the Bulge
in December 1944, Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using up reserves and demoralizing its troops
V-E Day May, 1945
The day Germany surrendered and we can now focus on the war against Japan.
Harry S Truman
Saw the nation through the final victory after FDR died a few weeks before the war ended.
WWII strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others.
Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships.
General Douglas MacArthur
Retook the Philippines and sunk Japanese ships.
Code name of the project that developed the nuclear bomb.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
August 6th, Hiroshima was bombed by little boy; August 9th Nagasaki was bombed by Fat Man. Causes Japan to surrender.
Emperor Hirohito and V-J Day surrender
on August 15, celebration of Japan's surrender
Summarize the arguments for and against an Allied invasion of France before 1944.
Stalin; wanted to because it would force Hitler to put resources and soldiers in France and away from the USSR.
FDR and Churchill were against it because they didn't think they were ready
How did the Battle of the Bulge get its name, and what was the ultimate outcome?
The disguised German soldiers attacked and pushed back the line to form a bulge, however the line was never broken, delayed the victory of the Allies
Describe the situation in Japan as the American forces got closer.
Get ready to defend the islands.
Yalta Conference ("Big Three")
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to discuss the post-war world.
-Agreed the countries of Eastern Europe, Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would have free elections to determine their new government. (Stalin brought them into the USSR).
-Agreed to divide Germany and Berlin into shares of influence.
Powerful country that plays a dominant economic, political, and military role in the world
US and Soviet Union became the world's first superpowers, mainly economically for US and just being big and military for USSR
GATT- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
US signed this in attempt to grow global trade by reducing tariffs.
United Nations (UN)
An attempt to learn from failures of the League of Nations to create an organization which could accomplish the same goals, but had the power to enforce their policies.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Document issued by the UN to promote basic human rights and freedoms. Condemned slavery and torture, upholds freedom of speech and religion.
An international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war.
The axis powers constantly broke the international laws.
Nazi officials were put on trial and tried for their war crimes. Most were found guilty, 12 were hung
What were the major immediate and long-term effects of WWII?
-70 million death
-us and ussr are superpowers
Identify one possible postwar consequence of the Allied disagreements at Yalta and Potsdam.
Helped them write a constitution in our image.
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