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P320 Test 4
Terms in this set (35)
people attempt to maintain their FREEDOM of action. When FREEDOM is threatened, people will do whatever they can to reinstate it
results in an increased desire to act contrary to the force that is constricting your FREEDOM
Increase external pressure ---> REDUCE compliance
increase external pressure, increase or reduce compliance?
"I choose problem A":
70% chose A
"I think we should both choose problem A":
40% chose A
People did NOT like pressure in second note.
FREEDOM felt threatened, so they went with other choice
1st Brehm Reactance Study:
Subjects given 2 problems to solve, given note from confederate.
1/2 given note saying "I choose problem A"
1/2 given note saying "I think we should both choose problem A"
What percent chose problem A?
NO FAVOR subjects more likely to help (with favor)
People who received favor felt pressure to help, so to reestablish FREEDOM, they didn't help
2nd Brehm Reactance Study:
Subjects in pairs (1 is confederate)
1/2 given favor from confederate
1/2 NOT given favor
Which group more likely to help confederate when confederate is given assignment?
Same # of women hired.
HOWEVER, those given MANDATES gave lower salaries to the women to reestablish freedom because they received more pressure to hire the women.
3rd Brehm Reactance Study:
Students roleplay personnel managers (hire and set salaries)
1/2 given government MANDATES to hire certain % of female workers
1/2 given government RECOMMENDATIONS to hire certain % of female workers.
when you perform an act because everyone else is doing it
YES, the subject changes their answer to be more like the confederate's
Sherif Conformity Study:
Subjects in dark room with confederate, guess how far a light moves (light doesn't actually move aka auto kinetic effect).
Does the subject change their estimates over time to be more like the confederate's answers (which are consistently lower or higher)
Auto Kinetic Effect
apparent movement of a single point of light or a small object when presented on a dark field and observed continuously; ex. stars or the city in the horizon
35% of the time subjects conform to the clear cut wrong answer
Asch Conformity Study:
Subjects sit in a room, and they have to decide correct length of a line (clear correct answer).
4 confederates, 1 real subject.
First 2 trials, confederates give right answer.
Last trial, all 4 confederates give unanimous WRONG answer.
What percent of the time, over many trials, do subjects conform to the clear cut wrong answer?
3-4. Increasing more than this does not really increase conformity.
How big should a unanimous group be to create conformity?
Asch proved that when it comes to conformity studies, it is not just PERCEPTUAL
Also holds for obviously incorrect statements
Asch proved that when it comes to conformity studies, it is not just ________
The more you TRUST a group the more you conform
The more you view a group as EXPERT, the more you conform.
The more you _________a group the more you conform
The more you view a group as ___________, the more you conform.
At first, they try to make the deviant person CHANGE.
If they change, all is FORGIVEN
If they remain deviant, COMMUNICATION STOPS, if rewards are available, they are WITHHELD from the deviant, if they have to assign punishment, the deviant is CHOSEN for punishment.
Schachter Fear of Deviance Study:
3 Real subjects, 1 deviant confederate
At first, they try to make the deviant person _________
If they change, all is __________
If they remain deviant, ________ stops, if rewards are available, they are _______ from the deviant, if they have to assign punishment, the deviant is __________ for punishment.
Acting in accord with a direct order
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
usually occurs when people work toward individual goals and when their efforts, whether winding fishing reels or solving math problems, can be individually evaluated
Superordinate goal (Sherif experiments)
a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
non-zero-sum game (mixed-motive situations)
games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose
reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive
when people do what they're asked to do, even though they'd prefer not to
If already asked about small request: 55% agreed to large request
If NOT asked about small request: Only 17% agreed to large request
IMPORTANT FOR TIME TO PASS before large request
Small request first: sign petition for safe driving
Large request 2 weeks later: Put up large ugly sign in yard that says "drive carefully"
What percent of people who were asked about small request agreed to large request (compared to people never asked about small request)
asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment
If already asked large request: 50% agreed to small request
If NOT asked about large request: 30% agreed to small request
IMMEDIATE: must ask for smaller request immediately after denial of large request (good for asking for raises)
Large request: Donate blood every 2 months for 3 years.
Small request asked immediately after: Just donate blood right now.
What percent of people who were asked the large request first agreed to small request (compared to people never asked about large request)
65% of subjects went to highest shock level.
The closer the experimenter is, the more likely the subject will obey
The closer the confederate getting shocked is placed next to the subject, the less likely the subject will obey.
Milgram Experiment (Conformity)
Subject is teacher, confederate is learner. When learner is wrong, subject must administer shocks that get increasingly worse.
Does the subject keep shocking them all the way to the top shock? Even if the confederate starts screaming then stops responding at all when the shocks are at the very worst (presumed heart attack)
What percent of subjects kept shocking to the top shock (psychiatrists predicted less than 1%)
The closer the experimenter is, the ______ likely the subject will obey
The closer the confederate getting shocked is placed next to the subject, the ________ likely the subject will obey.
Only 1 out of the 22 nurses refused.
They explained that they had to do this all the time. (told to administer medication to start treatment more quickly, and that the doctor would give the official written order later)
Conformity real-life experiment
22 nurses were called and told to administer medication (without a written doctor's order)
How many refused? Why?
This set is often in folders with...
P320 Test 1
P320 Test 2
P320 Test 3
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