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UIUC ASTR 100 Fall 2018 Exam 1
Terms in this set (65)
At which time of the year in Urbana, IL will your shadow in sunlight at midday be shortest?
The first day of summer, or about June 21st
What correctly describes the relationship between stars and constellations?
Every star is located in a constellation
The phase of the Moon at the time of a solar eclipse is:
If tonight the phase of the moon is full when it rises, what will be the phase 4 days from now?
If an observer on Earth sees the Moon to be full, then at the same time an observer on the moon would see Earth to be at what phase?
Astronomers sometimes announce they have discovered a new solar system beyond our own, or a new galaxy beyond our own. What correctly describes the terms "solar system" and "galaxy"?
A solar system consists of planets and other objects orbiting around a star, whereas a galaxy is a system consisting of an immense number of stars.
Where on Earth would you have to be to observe a particular partial solar eclipse?
Within a narrow and specific strip of Earth's surface less than 6000 km wide
The nightly motion of objects across out sky is caused by the
Rotation of Earth on its axis
A solar eclipse occurs on Earth when the:
Moon casts a shadow on Earth
When the northern hemisphere is experiencing winter:
Earth is closer to the Sun than it is during northern summer
What parameters will dictate whether a particular solar eclipse appears as a total or an annular eclipse to an observer?
The distance of the Moon from Earth at the time of the eclipse.
Orion is visible on winter evenings but not summer evenings because of:
The location of Earth in its orbit
A lunar eclipse does not occur at every full moon because:
The plane of the Moon's orbit is at an angle to the plane of Earth's orbit
What is the primary cause of Earth's seasons?
Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun
At approximately what time is the waxing crescent moon highest in the sky?
If tonight the phase of the moon is full when it rises, what will be the phase when the moon sets?
The Ecliptic is defined as:
Line traced in our sky by the Sun over one year against the background stars
One Astronomical Unit (AU) is defined as the:
Average distance between the Sun and Earth
Approximately what time does the waxing gibbous moon set?
A person standing in the Moon's penumbra will see a:
Partial solar eclipse
Approximately what time does the waning gibbous moon rise?
In what region of Earth would you have to be to have the Sun pass through your Zenith at some time during the year?
Within +/- 23.5° of the equator (i.e., in the tropics)
The ____ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above any observer
Which of the following phases of the moon is most easily seen during the daytime (mid-morning or mid-afternoon, not near sunrise or sunset)?
If the nearest star is 4.2 light-years away, then
The light we see left the star 4.2 years ago
Halley's comet returns to the Sun's vicinity approximately every 76 years in an elliptical orbit. According to Kepler's third law, what will be the semi-major axis of this orbit?
In which order (from earliest to latest) did the following people make their major contributions to astronomy?
Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Newton
The two ranges of electromagnetic radiation for which the Earth's atmosphere is reasonably transparent are:
Visible and Radio radiation
What path would a planet (like the Earth!) take if the force of gravity from the Sun were to be suddenly removed?
The planet would move in a straight line tangential to its present orbit
An electrical spark, such as lightning, generates electromagnetic radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. How much longer will a pulse of radio energy take to travel between two detector stations 100 m apart than a pulse of ultraviolet radiation from the same spark?
The time will be identical because both pulses travel at the speed of light
What is the relationship between color and wavelength for light?
Wavelength increases from violet to red
The greatest inaccuracy in Copernicus' theory of the solar system was that
He placed the planets in circular orbits
Which of the following statements CORRECTLY states the significance of Galileo's observation that Jupiter has satellites (moons)?
It showed that bodies can orbit an object other than Earth
A beam of light of which of the following pure colors is made up of photons of the lowest energy?
The word "planet" is derived from a Greek term meaning
The major reason why astronomers seek funds to build larger telescopes is
To collect more light from distant objects
The Copernican system for planetary motions is
Sun-centered, with the planets moving in perfect circles around the sun
The asteroid Ceres orbits the Sun at an average distance of 2.8 AU. What is Ceres' orbital period around the Sun?
Which of the following lists of different types of electromagnetic radiation is correctly ordered in wavelength, from shortest to longest?
Gamma rays, ultraviolet, infrared, radio
In the simplified version of Kepler's third law, P^2 = a^3, the units of the orbital period P and the semi-major axis of the ellipse a must be, respectively
years and astronomical units
X-rays and visible light
Are the same thing except that X-rays have shorter wavelengths than visible light
The purpose of describing planetary orbits in terms of epicycles and deferents was to account for
The pattern of alternating prograde and retrograde motion
A particular photon has a wavelength of 450 nm and a second one has a wavelength of 580 nm. Which of the following statements is true for the energies of these two photons?
The 450 nm photon has the higher energy
Our present understanding of the nature of light is that it
Displays behavior of both waves and particles
In the Greek era, it was almost universally believed that
The Earth was at the center of the universe
Where would you look to see a planet rise when it is in retrograde motion?
Near the eastern horizon
The mass of the Sun is about 333,000 times the mass of the Earth. Therefore, the gravitational force with which the Sun pulls on the Earth is
The same as the gravitational force with which the Earth pulls on the sun
A scientist observes a new phenomenon that disagrees with his explanation or hypothesis. Following the scientific method, he should
modify his hypothesis
An object orbiting the Sun in an ellipse can be said to be
Venus shows changes in angular size and also shows phases similar to those of the moon. According to Galileo, who first saw this, these observations showed that
Venus orbits the Sun
Two spaceships that have different masses by rocket engines of identical force are at rest in space. If they fire their rockets at the same time, which ship will speed up faster?
The one with the lower mass
To which point in a planetary orbit does the word "aphelion" refer?
The point farthest from the Sun
Which of the following characteristics of an astronomical telescope is the most important for determining the angular resolution?
The diameter of the objective lens or mirror
Mars moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. The location of the Sun relative to this ellipse is
At the focus that is closer to the point where Mars moves the fastest
Which of the following would cause the Earth's gravitational force on the Moon to increase by the largest amount?
Move the moon to half its current distance from the Earth
The direction of retrograde motion for a planet as seen by an observer on the Earth is
from east to west relative to the background stars
A person orbiting the Earth in the Space Shuttle feels weightless because
Only one force (gravity) acts on them, but gravity also accelerates the Shuttle, so the Shuttle does not push up on them to create the feeling of weight.
The person who compiled the large set of accurate observations of planetary positions that formed the basis for providing that planets move in elliptical orbits around the Sun was
According to Newton's laws, a force must be acting whenever
the direction of an object's motion changes
A distant asteroid is discovered that takes 50 years to orbit the Sun once. According to Kepler's third law, what is the average distance of this asteroid from the Sun?
13.6 AU (cube root of 2500)
A space probe is put into a circular orbit around the Sun at a distance of exactly 4 AU from the Sun. According to Kepler's third law, how long will it take this probe to orbit the Sun once?
Consider a comet in a long, thin elliptical orbit with a semi-major axis of 1 AU. What can you say about the orbital period of this comet?
It will be one year
If an object has an orbit around the Sun that has an eccentricity of 0.8, then the orbit is
A long, thin ellipse
The epicycle, in the Greek planetary model, is
The small circle through which the planet moves as the center of this circle orbits the Earth
The largest telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory is the Mayall 4-meter Telescope. The two Keck telescopes in Hawaii each have a diameter of 10 meters. How much greater is the light-gathering power of one Keck telescope than that of the Mayall telescope?
6.25 times greater
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