51 terms

Roman Art

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Roman Republic
509-27 BCE
Early Empire
27 BCE - 96 CE
High Empire
96-192 CE
Late Empire
193-337 CE
Concrete Revolution
Architectural revolution following the invention of concrete, allowed for roads, arches, aqueducts, and domes
Concrete
cheap material made from lime mortar, volcanic sand and ash, water and stones. Allowed larger structures to be made.
Man with Portrait Busts of his Ancestors (1st cent BCE)
Roman senators proud of family lineage
Busts
Roman sculptors used death masks to create portrait of head, neck and shoulders
Head of Old Man from Osimo (75-50 BCE)
Veristic portrait, shows age to imply wisdom
Veristic Portraits
hyper-realistic or surrealistic portraits, common in roman art
Head of a Roman Patrician (75-50 BCE)
Veristic Portrait
Temple of Portunus (75 BCE)
Ionic influence and Etruscan Influence, only frontal columns, high podium and single cella
Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius
Ashes preserved both structures and bodies
Pompeii forum (2nd cent. BCE)
had a forum and a basilica
Forum
A public square, center of civic life, communication hub (often a place to display propaganda)
Basilica
large hall or building with colonnades and an apse, court of law, administration office, (Inspired design of early christian churches)
Roman Villa
had an atrium, open roof garden, peristyle, cubicula. had wall paintings.
Atrium
courtyard like area with an open roof and rain collecting pool
Peristyle
structure surrounding a courtyard
Cubiculae
rooms where the family slept and dined
First style wall painting, Samnite House (late 2nd cent. BCE)
plain geometric panels, frescoes in which water based pigments are applied directly to wet plaster
Dionysiac Mystery Frieze, 2nd style wall painting (60-50 BCE)
creates the illusion of being within the scene, depicts the initiation rights of the Dionysiac mysteries
Third Style wall painting, Villa of Agrippa Postumus (ca. 10 BCE)
dark background and light linear designs
Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room
a combination of all previous wall painting styles
Portrait of Agustus as General (early 1st century CE)
idealized propaganda, armor decorated with symbols of peace
Ara Pacis Augustae/Altar of Augustan Peace (13-9 BCE)
two friezes, bottom representing peace and top depicting a procession
Tellus Panel, Ara Pacis Augustae (13-9 BCE)
possible personification of peace, wet dress style, idealized
Procession Panel, Ara Pacis Agustae (13-9 BCE)
Illusionism, portraits, children depicted to encourage birthrate increase
Composite Capital
combines Ionic and Corinthian elements
Arch of Titus, Rome (after 81 CE)
depicts apotheosis, triumph of Titus, and spoils of Jerusalem
Triumph of Titus, relief panel from Arch of Titus (After 81 CE)
Nike crowning Titus, one of the earliest depictions of gods and mortals together
Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus (after 81 CE)
Shows stolen artifacts from the temple of Solomon
Restored view of Forum of Trajan
has portico, exedra and an equestrian statue in the courtyard
Portico
roof supported by columns, forming a porch or a covered walk
Exedra
semicircular portico serving as an outdoor meeting area
Equestrian Statue
depicts a figure on horseback
Column of Trajan (12 CE)
First sculpture using column as a base, inspired minarets, has spiraling register depicting battle scene
Pantheon, Rome, Italy, (118-125 CE)
Has a perfect dome shape, dedicated to all gods, thick walls for support
Coffer
sunken relief panel to ease structural pressure
Oculus
light opening in the center of the dome, also eases pressure
Rotunda
circular domed building or hall
Pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius (161 CE)
Multi-sided pedestal, lost column, transitional between classical and early christian style
Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, from pedestal of Antonius Pius (161 CE)
Classical style, shows goddess Roma, Antonius and Faustina ride on the back of unknown figure
Decursio, from pedestal of Antonius Pius (161 CE)
newer style with squat bodies, less idealized
Encaustic Painting
a technique of painting in which pigment is mixed with wax and applied to the surface while hot
Mummy portrait of a priest of Serapis (140-160 CE)
Depicts the person in coffin, replacing a death mask, encaustic painting
Late Empire (government?)
split into Tetrarchy (four co-rulers)
Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs (305 CE)
Symbolic, no individualism
Colossal Head of Constantine (315-330 CE)
huge eyes, stylized, far less realistic
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith (280-337 CE)
Arch of Constantine,(312-315 CE)
Propaganda celebrating Constantine's victory, Classical idealism and newer style combined
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