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AP Euro Semester Exam
Terms in this set (52)
A transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution.
A revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. Ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
Comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly of France during the French Revolution.
Great Fear of 1789
Rural unrest had been present in France since the worsening grain shortage of the spring, and fueled by the rumors of an aristocrat "famine plot" to starve or burn out the population, peasant and town people mobilized in many regions.
"flight to Varennes"
King Louis XVI of France, his wife Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A law that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government.
Clergy members who refused to take the oath of loyalty to the constitution.
A royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was destroyed in the upheaval of the Paris Commune in 1871.
Threatened that if the French royal family were harmed, then French civilians would be harmed. It was a measure intended to intimidate Paris, but rather helped further spur the increasingly radical French Revolution and finally led to the war between revolutionary France and counter-revolutionary monarchies.
Levee en masse
A political group during the French Revolution whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. They were the most radical group and opposed the Girondists. Led by the Jacobins, they unleashed the Reign of Terror in 1794.
Radical left-wing partisans of the lower classes; typically urban labourers, which dominated France. Though ill-clad and ill-equipped, they made up the bulk of the Revolutionary army.
Le Chapelier Law
Banned guilds as the early version of trade unions and the right to strike - proclaimed free enterprise as the norm.
Committee of Public Safety
The de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror.
A legislative assembly of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. It had a separate assembly for each of the three estates.
The second month in the French Republican Calendar.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and of Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution.
They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution.
The most famous and influential political club in the development of the French Revolution. The club was closed after the execution of Robespierre. Notorious for its implementation of the Reign of Terror.
A loose amalgam of radicals active during the French Revolution. Politically they stood to the left of the Jacobins.
Treaty of Tilsit
Two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. Ended the War of the Fourth Coalition at the expense of the Prussian king.
Issued by Napoleon, forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe.
All connections were to be cut, even the mail. British merchants smuggled in many goods and this system was not a powerful weapon of economic war.
A conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
A loose association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire.
A coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia. It was created after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon at the behest of Czar Alexander I of Russia
Congress of Vienna
A conference of ambassadors whose objective was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The leaders were conservatives who sought to achieve long-term peace in Europe by a balance of power, and to restore traditional rulers to Napoleon's puppet states.
The terms given to France after its defeat at the battle of Leipzig. In most accounts of this event it is stated that Napoleon was offered the chance to keep France's natural borders and still remain emperor but that he refused this out of pride.
One of the chief political theorists of the French Revolution, and also played a prominent role in the French Consulate and First French Empire. Wrote "What is the Third Estate?"
A general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution.
A French statesman and Minister of Police under Napoleon I.
Prime Minister of Great Britain during the French Napoleonic Wars.
Advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races. His ideas and writings were said to embody the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment
Founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution. His followers are usually referred to as the Hébertists.
French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period. In spite of the efforts of his Jacobin friends to save him, Babeuf was arrested, tried, and executed. Considered a modern-day communist and anarchist.
A British flag officer famous for his service in the Royal Navy, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars.
The elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain.
Grand Duke of Berg and then King of Naples. He received his titles in part by being the brother-in-law of Napoleon Bonaparte, through marriage to Napoleon's youngest sister.
King of France until his execution during the French Revolution.
Spent twenty-three years in exile during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.
Island off the French coast in the Mediterranean. Briefly occupied again by British troops. The Treaty of Bastia gave the British crown sovereignty over the island, but it was later repudiated by Lord Castelreagh who insisted that the island should be returned to a restored French monarchy.
In 1815, when Napoleon escaped exile on Elba for his Hundred Days, it refused to recognize him and stayed loyal to King Louis XVIII. General Lamarque led 10,000 men to pacify the region.
Battle of Valmy
The first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution.
Battle of Marengo
The French overcame General Michael von Melas's surprise attack near the end of the day, driving the Austrians out of Italy, and enhancing Napoleon's political position in Paris as First Consul of France in the wake of his coup d'état the previous November
A French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
Treaty of Campo Formio
Marked the victorious conclusion to Napoleon's campaigns in Italy, the collapse of the First Coalition, and the end of the first phase of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Battle of Ulm
A series of minor skirmishes at the end of Emperor Napoleon's Ulm Campaign. It culminated in the surrender of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich and a significant part of his army near Ulm in Württemberg.
Battle of Austerlitz
One of Napoleon's greatest victories, where the French Empire effectively crushed the Third Coalition.
Battle of Borodinio
The largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia and the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon captures Moscow, then retreats from Russian Empire.
Battle of Waterloo
Decisive Coalition victory, marking the end of Napoleon's Hundred Days return from exile.
Created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a personal union of the Russian parcel of Poland with the Russian Empire.
A naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition in 1805. The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established.
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