Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (94)
Water constitutes ______ percent of body weight.
The body's most indispensable nutrient
abnormally low level of sodium in the blood, results in swelling of the brain, nerves, and fluid in lungs
who is likely to get hyponatremia
those who drink copious amounts of water and are involved in extreme physical activity
symptoms of Hyponatremia
confusion, convulsions, rarely death
kidneys & water
provide major control of homeostasis and central to regulation of BP and blood volume
ADH (antidiruetic hormone)
water conserving hormone produced by the pituitary gland in response to dehydration (a high sodium concentration in blood)
Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water (excrete less).
Alcohol impact on ADH
depresses ADH activity, leads to fluid loss and dehydration
Enzyme released by kidney cells when blood pressure is low
Renin causes what
kidneys to reabsorb sodium (both Renin and aldosterone function to promote retention of sodium
Renin enzyme converts _________ to _________ & then another enzyme converts it to active form, ____________
angiotensinogen, angiotensin I , angiotensin II,
Constricting blood vessels, resulting in elevation of blood pressure.
Stimulating adrenal glands to release aldosterone which signals kidneys to excrete potassium and retain more sodium and thus water
ion that carries a positive charge
ion that carries a negative charge
what do water molecules attract to dissolve into ions?
Sodium (Na+) major extracellular cation & Chloride (Cl-) major extracellular anion
The __________ are central to regulating blood volume, which in turn influences blood pressure. They do this by adjusting urine_________ and concentration.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released in response to dehydration. Thus, it stimulates water to be________ by the kidneys.
Renin is an enzyme released by the ____________.
This occurs when blood pressure is _________.
pituitary gland; high
Renin causes___________ to be reabsorbed, which is accompanied by water reabsorption.
Angiotensin II is a powerful _____ __________. This means it (raises/lowers) blood pressure
vaso constrictor, raise
Renin is required to convert_______________ into angiotensin I.
Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of ____________. This hormone signals the kidneys to excrete ____________ and retain sodium. This, in turn, stimulates the retention of _________.
aldosterone, potassium, water
movement of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane from area of low to high concentration (of solute)
If sodium is low, ______________ stimulates sodium reabsorption from kidneys and excretes potassium
Ions also manage internal acidity, Narrow pH range to avoid life-threatening consequences:
Lungs control: (quick fix)
Lungs control carbonic acid concentration &
Raise or lower respiratory rate (RR)
Too much carbonic acid
Respiratory Rate increases = hyperventilation
Too much bicarbonate:
Respiratory Rate slows & CO2 retained to form carbonic acid
Kidneys control: (slow fix)
concentration of bicarbonate
Reabsorb or excrete bicarbonate
-always retain chemical identity
-cannot be destroyed by heat, air, acid, or mixing
Examples #1 of binders that occur in foods of plant origin:
Phytates (legumes, seeds, nuts, and grains)
Examples #2 of binders that occur in foods of plant origin:
Oxalates (rhubarb, beet greens, sweet potatoes and spinach
UL of sodium
2300 mg/day -- according to American Heart Association -- especially with hypertension
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension - is effective in lowering BP
-increase fruit, vegetables, and low fat dairy; grains, nuts, poultry --- cut back on red meat
Sodium deficiency is rare/common.
High sodium is correlated with _______ ________ ________ (3 words). Because of this, the UL is _2300__.
high blood pressure
An estimated _____ percent of Americans exceed sodium recommendations.
Most sodium is consumed as _______ (sodium _______.)
salt ; chloride
Adults with prehypertension or hypertension are recommended to consume <_______ mg of sodium.
The eating plan especially for lowering sodium is called __________.
1500; DASH diet
Processed foods have the most:
sodium (& are low in potassium)
Acute symptoms of excessive sodium are ______ and ______ blood pressure.
edema (severe swelling) & high
Prolonged excessive sodium contributes to ___________.
chloride major function in body
helps maintain gastric acidity as part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Primary function of potassium:
principal intracellular cation & Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
99% of body's calcium in ????? & ????, while 1% in ??????? & ???????
bones (& teeth) ; intracellular & extracellular fluids
Balance maintained by system of hormones including:
(parathyroid hormone & calcitonin), vitamin D and 3 organ systems, the intestines, bones & kidneys
secretes PTH hormone when blood calcium=low which stimulates calcium reabsorption from the kidneys into the blood
& also stimulates activation of vitamin D enhances calcium absorption in intestines
Osteoclast cells release _______ into the blood. PTH _______ blood calcium levels.
Hormones maintain blood concentration of calcium regardless of dietary intake, therefore:
When intake is low, bones suffer
calcium is Most abundant in single food group
milk & milk products
calcium is also abundant in
Some dark, leafy green vegetables are calcium rich but provide very little calcium due to binders
("adult bone loss" - bones become porous and fragile due to loss of minerals)
Assists in energy metabolism
Part of ATP; enzymes & B vitamins become active when phosphate group attached
Helps transport lipids in the blood
Provide stability to lipoproteins
Structural component of cell membranes
iron-storage protein; major storage reservoir for iron
iron transport protein
More iron is absorbed when stores are ______.
_________ is the iron-storage protein, capturing iron from food.
This iron is stored in _______ cells.
If iron is needed, the storage protein releases it to the transport protein, ______.
2 types of dietary iron:
Heme & nonheme iron
Found in animal foods & fish
High bioavailability (most absorbable form) - 25% absorbed, absorption depends upon body's iron stores
Found in plant and animal foods
~ 17% absorbed, also depends upon body's iron stores & dietary factors
Absorption-enhancers for nonheme iron:
MFP factor & ascorbic acid
peptide in meat, fish, and poultry that promotes the absorption of nonheme iron from other foods eaten at the same meal (when heme and nonheme food sources are eaten together)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Transferrin delivers iron to
bone marrow and other tissues
surplus iron, mostly in the liver and some in bone marrow & spleen
an iron storage protein primarily made in times of overload/excess
RBC removes from blood but iron is :
Increases in iron overload and decreases in iron deficiency
Major cause of iron deficiency
iron deficiency stage #1
Iron stores diminish
iron deficiency stage #2
Increase in transferrin level (an adaptation that enhances iron absorption), but transferrin saturation decreases
iron deficiency stage #3
Hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) values decline & symptoms are present
Hgb/Hct are LATE indicators for iron deficiency anemia!!
Commonly used as indicators as tests are easy, quick and cheap
symptoms of iron deficiency anemia
fatigued only with exertion
Causes free-radical damage & Infections are likely as viruses & bacteria thrive on iron-rich blood
A genetic disorder that results in failure to prevent absorption of un-needed dietary iron that is characterized by iron overload and tissue damage
natural sources of iron
Meats, fish, poultry contribute most iron/serving with legumes & eggs also being good sources
Poor sources of iron
most vegetables, including those containing oxalates such as spinach & Milk is a POOR source of iron
zinc roles in the body
Supports the work of hundreds of proteins that participate in metabolic processes and regulation of gene expression
Zinc Transport in the blood
albumin & transferrin
main transport vehicle of zinc
carries both zinc and iron
Sources of zinc
Shellfish, meats, poultry, milk, and cheese
UL of zinc in adults
40 mg based upon zinc's interference in copper metabolism
--Excess zinc can cause a copper deficiency
Iodine roles in the body
part of thyroid gland that control: Metabolic rate & amount of energy expended during basal metabolism
Thyroid hormone production declines
Increased secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Cells of thyroid expand causing goiter
An enlargement of the thyroid gland in neck
best sources of iodine:
depend on geography (inland or coastal)
Coastal areas for iodine sources
:ocean is world's major source of iodine
Seafood is richest source of iodine
inland areas for iodine sources
selenium roles in body
copper roles in body
Constituent of enzymesinvolved in reactions that consume oxygen or oxygen radicals
fluoride roles in body
help prevent dental caries by becoming incorporated into the cryastalline structure of teeth, making them less susceptible to decay
large group of phytochemicals that are powerful antioxidants
foods that contain non-nutrient substances that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 10 & 11 quiz
Exam 3 Human Nutrition
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
(Nutrition) Ch. 13: The Trace Minerals
Chapter 13: The Trace Minerals
HN&F Chapter 13
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
GNDR-G435 Exam 2
GNDR-G435 Exam 1
Crime and Madness Quiz 1
Death Penalty Exam #2