Unit 3 Test
Terms in this set (46)
What is energy?
The ability to do work or cause change.
The energy an object has due to its motion.
Stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object.
Where is chemical energy stored?
In the bonds of molecules/chemical bonds.
What is gravitational potential energy?
Energy that an object has depending on its height, the work done against the force of gravity.
The Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
What is ATP used for?
All energy required in cell functions.
Where is energy stored in ATP?
In the bonds between the phosphates.
How is energy released from ATP?
Energy released by breaking the chemical bond between the second and third phosphate groups.
What are the most important sources of energy?
Carbohydrates and Lipids.
What are the three parts of ATP?
Adenine, ribose, three phosphate groups.
What is the importance of the phosphate groups in ATP?
They release energy when they break apart.
What is the scientific name for ATP?
What is ADP?
A lower-enrgy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.
What is the scientific name for ADP?
What provides the energy to add phosphate back onto ADP producing ATP?
The energy from the gradual break down of food.
What is a calorie?
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
What is an autotroph?
An organism that makes its own food.
What is a heterotroph?
An organism that cannot make its own food.
What is chemosynthesis?
A process by which some organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy-storing carbon-based molecules.
Where is chemosynthesis found?
In hot springs/vents deep on the sea floor.
What are the reactants and products of chemosynthesis?
At these hydrothermal vents, vent bacteria oxidize hydrogen sulfide, add carbon dioxide and oxygen, and produce sugar, sulfur, and water: CO2 + 4H2S + O2 -> CH20 + 4S + 3H2O.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars.
Equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6H2O (water) +energy-------> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)
The range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.
What are the colors of visible light?
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. R.O.Y.G.B.I.V.
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis.
The stacks of thylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast.
Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
Process that does not require oxygen.
What are the two types of fermentation?
Alcoholic and lactic acid.
What are the three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
The amount of light, CO2, and water.
How do plants store their exes energy?
Why are plants green?
The chlorophyll reflects the green light and absorbs the rest of the colors.
Why do they consider forests as the lungs of the earth?
They clean our air.
Location of Light Dependent Reaction
Thylakoid Membrane (inside chloroplast).
location of light independent
Occurs in the stroma, inside the chloroplasts.
Where does glycolysis occur?
Cytoplasm of the cell.
Starting molecule of Glycolysis.
Starting molecule of Cellular Respiration.
number of ATP produced in glycolysis
2 ATP molecules.
Total number of ATP produced from glycolysis and cellular respiration.
34 ATP molecules.
What does glycolysis do?
Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
Process that requires oxygen