used to find an unknown value that produces a desired result. new values in the variable cell to find a solution to the problem.
database as the heart of the system
is a central database that collects information from and feeds information into all the ERP system's individual application components (called modules), supporting diverse business functions such as accounting, manufacturing, marketing and human resources.
included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations. accounting, finance, logistics ,production
extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations. business intelligence, customer relationship management, supply chain management, e-business
two major vendors of core components
oracle and sap
several different types of software that sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications.
middleware represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors.
(information collaboration) includes document exchange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and email. These functions can improve personal productivity, reducing the time spent searching for information or chasing answers.
(process collaboration) involves shared participation in business processes, such as workflow, in which knowledge is hard-coded as rules. improves automation and the routing of information.
types of collaboration systems
knowledge management systems, workflow management systems, groupware systems
knowledge management systems
- supports the capturing, organization, and dissemination of knowledge (i.e know-how) throughout an organization. includes explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge.
consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT. ex: patents, trademarks.
is the knowledge contained in people's heads.
workflow management systems
defines all the steps or business rules, from beginning to end, required for a business process.
is software that supports team interaction and dynamics including calendaring, scheduling, and videoconferencing
content management systems
provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment.
common types of content management systems
document management systems (DMS), digital asset management system (DAM), web content management system (WCM)
document management systems (DMS)
- Supports the electronic capturing, storage, distribution, archiving, and accessing of documents.
digital asset management system (DAM)
similar to document management, generally works with binary rather than text files, such as multimedia file types.
web content management system (WCM)
Adds an additional layer to document and digital asset management that enables publishing content both to intranets and to public Web sites.
SOX "sarbanes-oxlley act of 2002"
enacted in response to the high profile Enron and WorldCom financial scandals to protect shareholders and the public from accounting errors and fraudulent practices by organizations. all business records, including electronic records and electronic messages, "must be saved for not less than five years."
benefits from sox
Boosts investors' confidence in the company, Standardized bookkeeping audits in its disparate businesses around the world, Greater confidence investors have in financial results
that an organization is placing itself at risk if it fails to monitor its employees; however, some people feel that monitoring employees is unethical.
information technology monitoring
tracking people's activities by such measures as number of key strokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed.
the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people. analyzing right from wrong; good from bad.
scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt the information.
The right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possessions, and not to be observed without your consent
the assurance that message and information are available only to those who are authorized to view them
security policies and e-policies
Organizations strive to build a corporate culture based on ethical principles that employees can understand and implement.
ethical computer use policy
policy ensures all users are informed of the rules and, by agreeing to use the system on that basis, consent to abide by the rules.
acceptable use policy (AUP)
a policy that a user must agree to follow in order to be provided access to a network or to the Internet. a non-repudiation clause: participants agree not to deny their on-line actions.
Intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form.
The unauthorized use, duplication, distribution or sale of copyrighted software.
Software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.
information security lines of defense
1) people 2) technology
using one's social skills to trick people into revealing access credentials or other information valuable to the attacker.
are legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting incident
authentication 3 types
1) somthing the user knows (password) 2) something the user has (smart card) 3) something that is part of the user (fingerprint)
is the forging of the return address on an e-mail so that the e-mail message appears to come from someone other than the actual sender. not a virus but rather a way by which virus authors conceal their identities as the send out viruses.
The legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, video game, and some types of proprietary documents.
the fair use doctrine
in certain situations, it is legal to use copyrighted material.
prevention and resistance
technologies stop intruders from accessing intellectual capital.
raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event.
is data converted into a meaningful and useful context.
is it is often INCONSISTENT, which makes it difficult to determine which values are the most current or most accurate.
is a type of database that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.
is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
an entity class
(often called a table) is a collection of similar entities.
also called fields or columns, are characteristics or properties of an entity class.
a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table.
in the relational database model is a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
is the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
is information that people use to support their decision making efforts.
enabling business intelligence
technology, people, and culture
extraction, transformation and loading (ETL)
is a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse.
a subset of data warehouse information.
executive information systems (EIS)
is a specialized DSS (Decision Support System) that supports senior-level executives within the organization.
involves the aggregation of information and features simple rollups to complex groupings of interrelated information.
enables users to view details, and details of details, of information.
slice and dice
the ability to look at information from different perspectives.
, models information to support managers and business professionals during the decision making process.
the study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have on other parts of the model.
what if analysis
checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution.
goal seeking analysis
finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output.
integrate information from multiple components and tailor the information to individual preferences.
a special purpose knowledge based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users.
learn or understand from experience, make sense of ambiguous or contradictory information, and even use reasoning to solve problems and make decisions effectively.
also called an artificial neural network, is a category of Artificial Intelligence that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works.
- is an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem.
are computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning process of experts in solving difficult problems.
OLAP (online analytical processing)
is the manipulation of information to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making.
OLTP (online transaction processing)
is the capturing of transaction and event information using technology to (1) process the information according to defined business rules, (2) store the information, and (3) update existing information to reflect the new information.
TPS (transaction processing systems)
is the basic business system that serves the operational level (analysts) in an organization.
encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks.
business process modeling
the activity of creating a detailed flow chart or process map of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities, in a structured sequence
business process re-engineering
is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises.
customer relationship management (CRM)
Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability
supply chain management (SCM)
Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability.