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Comm theory test 3
Terms in this set (66)
What is groupthink and who introduced this concept? What kinds of groups were analyzed in developing this theory?
a way of group deliberation that minimizes conflict and emphasizes the need for unanimity. introduced by William Whyte later developed by Irving Janis.
focused on foreign policy groups
What kinds of groups are susceptible to groupthink?
highly cohesive small groups
What are the assumptions of groupthink? Be sure you understand the implications of each assumption
Conditions in groups promote high cohesiveness
Group problem solving is primarily a unified process
Groups and group decision making are frequently complex
Is the old saying "Two heads are better than one" still a valid claim?
What is the role of homogeneity in groupthink?
groups that are similar are more prone to groupthink
What are the three antecedent conditions to groupthink? -high cohesiveness of the decision-making groups
-high cohesiveness of the decision-making groups
-specific structural characteristics of the environment in which the group functions
-stressful internal and external characteristics of the situation
What is cohesiveness and in what ways can it lead to groupthink?
a cultural value that places emphasis on the group over the individual, highly cohesive groups exert great pressure on their members to conform to group standards
What are the structural factors that may lead to groupthink?
Group insulation (groups unaffected by outside influences)
Lack of impartial leadership (leaders who put their personal agendas first)
Lack of decision-making procedures (no norms for solving issues)
Homogeneity of group members backgrounds
What are the three categories of symptoms of group think?
Overestimation of the group
Pressures toward uniformity
What does Janis suggest we do to prevent groupthink?
groups should engage in vigilant decision making
1. looking at the range of objectives group members wish to achieve
2. developing and reviewing action plans and alternatives
3. exploring the consequences of each alternative
4. analyzing previously rejected plans when new information emerges
5. having a contingency plan for failed suggestions.
What are the eight symptoms of groupthink?
Illusion of invulnerability
belief in the inherent morality of the group
illusion of unanimity
pressures on the dissenters
What does 't Hart suggest for groups prone to groupthink?
1. . require oversight and control
2. embrace whistle-blowing
3. all for objection
4. balance consensus and majority rule
In the evaluation of this theory, what were it's strengths and weaknesses?
weak in scope & testability
strong in heurism & test of time
What is the role of rules in producing, reproducing, and transforming social institutions?
we use rules to state expectations of behavior and communication with the organization
How do rules in organizations come into being?
typically learned from the organization itself and from members past experiences and personal rules. they are reaffirmed as a result of their use, may decide to keep rules or change them to meet changing needs
How do organizations use social interaction to achieve their goals?
employee receptions, conference calls, employee training & meetings
How do we make sense of the communication that takes place between members of organizations?
examine the structure that serves as their foundation
What is the difference between systems and structures?
System (the actual group and behaviors they engage in)
Structure (the rules and resources used to sustain the group)
What are the assumptions of structuration theory?
Groups and organizations are produced and reproduced through actions and behaviors.
Communication rules serve as both the medium for, and an outcome of interactions
power structure are present in organizations and guide the decision-making process
In what way do communication rules serve a dual function?
they tell you why something must be done but also how to achieve a goal
What is power? What are the types of power that might be used?
imposition of personal will on others.
Reward power (another person can provide rewards)
Coercive power (another person can punish you)
Referent power (when someone can achieve compliance because people like them)
Legitimate power (can achieve compliance because or title or position)
Expert power (another person can exert influence because of special knowledge or expertise)
What are agency and reflexivity and how do we use each?
agency (behaviors or activities used in social environments guided by the rules)(classroom)
reflexivity (a person's ability to monitor his or her actions or behaviors)
What are the differences between rules and resources? What types of resources are available?
rules are general routines that the organization or group follows in accomplishing goals and resources are attributes or material goods that can be used to exert power in an organization.
-allocative resources are material assistance's
-authoritative resources are interpersonal assistance's
How is structuration theory evaluated in terms of parsimony and heurism?
strong in heurism, weak in parsimony
What often happens when organizations change?
excitement, anxiety, uncertainty, frustratioin, & disbelief.
What was the purpose for which OCT was developed?
-To invite reasearchers to observe, record, & make sense of communication behavior of organ. members. (O.C.T.)
-Organiz. understood w/ a "cultural lens' , an idea proposed by Anthropologist (Clifford Geertz).
What is the metaphor Geertz applied to organizations and what is its significance?
-"SYMBOLIC -INTERPRETIVE APPROACH" (1973) in theoretical model.
-Geertz says ppl are like animals, "suspended in webs of significance".
-Webs are intricate designs; each oneis different. Webs represent cultures, strength, life, & cohesion, but also need constant maintenance.
-Significance - - > prim. goal of researchers is to think of all possible web configur. (features) in organiz.
What are the assumptions of OCT and what are the implications of each?
1. Organiz. members create/maintain shared sense of organ. reality, resulting in a better underst. of the values of an organiz.
2. Use & Interpretation of Symbols critical to organiz.'s culture
3. Cultures vary across organiz. & interpret actions w/in cultures are diverse.
Art, design, logo, buildings, dress, apperance
ceremonics, rituals, traditions, customs, reards, punishments
Antecdotes, jokes, jargon, names, nicknames, myths, history, metaphors.
OCT Assumption #2
physical, behavior, & verbal symbols
Geertz suggests researchers should become Ethnographers.
-ETHNORGAPHY - qualitative methodology unconvers./interpr., artifacts, stories, rituals, & practices to reveal meaning in a culture
-explanation of layers of mng. in a culture (Geertz 1973)
concludesthis is a kindof ethnography
-ethnography strive to understand Thick Description "to ferret out" unimportant things.
Organiz. members serve as actors b/c...
actors act of performances (Pacanowsky& O'Donnell-Trujillo) 1982
Theorists outline Five Cultural Performance Types:
Personal Rituals - checking voicemail/email/texts
Task Rituals - Issues Tickets, Collect Fees
Social Rituals - Happy Hour Gatherings
Organiz. Rituals - dept. mtngs., company picnics
Storytelling, metaphors, and exxag. speech
"this is the most unappreciated company"
Acts of Civility & Politeness; etiquette; custom. "thank you"
Exercise control, power, & influence - "barking" bosses, intimidation rituals bargaining
Acquired cometencies over organiz. career - Learning/Teaching roles, orientations, interviews
LOGICAL CONSISTENCY- some believe consist. lacking
(e.Eisenburg, Goodall, & Ang. Tretheway obesrve its shared mng. an org. members
UTILITY - useful theory b/c info is applicable to all employees in an organization
HERUISM- appeal of OCT far & wide: influences scholars to cont. organiz. cult. in teach classes
(examine by Pacanowsky & O'Donnnell)
Why did Fisher call his narrative theory a paradigm?
to signal the breadth of his vision because it is considered broader than a theory.
Upon what assumptions is the narrative paradigm based?
-Humans are naturally storytellers
-decisions about a story's worth are based on "good reasons"
-Good reasons are determined by history, biography, culture, and character.
-Rationality is based on people's judgments of a story's consistency and truthfulness.
-We experience the world as filled with stories, and we must choose among them.
What are" fidelity" and "rationality"?
fidelity is a principle of narrative rationality judging the credibility of a story and rationality is a standard for judging which stories to believe and which to disregard.
What questions do we ask when seeking a "logic of good reasons"?
Are the statements that claim to be factual, really factual?
Have any relevant facts been omitted from the story or distorted in it's telling?
What are the patterns of reasoning in the story?
how relevant are the arguments to decisions the listener may make?
How well does the story address the important and significant issues in this case?
How was the narrative paradigm evaluated?
weak in scope, logical consistency & utility
strong in heurism
According to AST, how do media set the agenda for the public?
By telling people what's important by how often and if the story is reported.
What were the findings of the study of the 1968 election regarding agenda setting?
Five main issues (fiscal policy, law and order, foreign policy, public welfare and civil rights) mentioned in the media which formed public agenda
What are the 4 types of power relations that can tell us who is setting the agenda?
High-power source and high-power media
High-power source and low-power media
Low-power source and high-power media
Low-power source and low-power media
What are the assumptions of AST?
1. The media establish an agenda and in so doing are not simply reflecting reality, but are shaping and filtering reality for the public.
2. The media's concentration on the issue that compromise their agenda influence the public's agenda, and these together influence the policymaker's agenda.
3. The public and policymakers have the possibility to influence the media's agenda as well.
What are the 2 levels of agenda setting?
1. List of important issues that comprise the agenda.
2. Attribute agenda setting: focuses on the parts of the issues are most important.
How media depictions of events influence and constrain the way consumers can interpret events.
What is the 3-part process of agenda setting? What role do salience, credibility, conflicting information, relevance, and uncertainty play in this process?
1. Media agenda
2. Public agenda
3. Policy agenda
The degree to which an agenda issue is perceived as important relative to the other issues on the agenda
Do the people receive any conflicting information, thus causing them to question the information? This causes them to keep more information and form their own opinion.
A factor explaining why people seek guidance from the media agenda. It refers to how personally affected they feel by an issue
Another factor explaining why people seek guidance from the media agenda. It refers to how much information a person believes they already possess about an issue
How is AST critiqued regarding scope?
What does SST assume about the relationship between media and users of media?
it has a profound influence and shapes who we are today
Who was the theorist who conceptualized SST?
What does SST suggest about people who hold minority viewpoints on public issues? What about those holding the majority viewpoint?
people who hold minority views will remain in the background where communication will be restrained. Majority viewpoints will be more encouraged to speak
How does your text define "public opinion" and what are its characteristics?
attitudes and behaviors expressed in public in order to avoid isolation
What are the three assumptions of SST?
Society threatens deviant individuals with isolation; fear of isolation is pervasive
This fear of isolation causes individuals to try to assess the climate of opinion at all times
Public behavior is affected by public opinion assessment
What did Noelle-Neumann mean when she characterized the media as ubiquitous, cumulative, and consonant?
the media is everywhere, they repeat themselves, and are similar in all attitudes, beliefs, and values
How was SST evaluated in terms of heurism?
weak in logical consistency
strong in heurism
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