APUSH chapter 28 terms
Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt 1901- 1912
Terms in this set (62)
Women's Christian Temperance Union
This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol.
Wet and Dry
some states and numerous counties passed "dry" laws, which controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol. The big cities were generally "wet," (no control on the sale of alcohol) for they had a large immigrant vote accustomed in the Old Country tothe free flow of wine and beer. By 1914, nearly one-half of the population lived in "dry" territory, and nearly three-fourths of the total area had outlawed saloons.
Rule of Reason
Supreme Court doctrine that held that only those business interest combinations that "unreasonably" restrained trade were illegal. This fine-print proviso ripped a huge hole in the government's antitrust net.
Separate Spheres is a concept within Women's History and Gender History that describes the split dominions of the home and public spheres along gender lines
Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and
Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt
and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination.
This also divided the Republican party.
Carey Act of 1894
distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled
Charles Evans Hughes
the able and audacious reformist Republican governor of New York, had earlier gained national fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust.
designed to take politics out of municiple administration
David G. Phillips
published "The Treason of the Senate" in Cosmopolitan, said that 75 out of the 90 senators represented railroads and trusts rather than the people'
Desert Land Act of 1887
first land conservation act, 1877- government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the buyer irrigate it within 3 years
Dollar diplomacy was Taft's foreign policy which replaced "bullets with dollars." The policy involved
investors instead of the military. In the policy, American investors would get poorer nations into debt, then have a bit of
economic leverage against those nations. It eventually worked better in Latin America than China
Enacted in 1919, this amendment forbade the sale and manufacture of liquor.
The Elkins Act of 1903 was passed by Congress against the railroad industries. It specifically targeted the use of
rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It was part of the Progressive
Eugene v. Debs
He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party.
Forest Reserve Act
(1891) President Roosevelt used this act to protect some 172 million acres of timberland. Part of the Roosevelt conservation policy of conserving natural resources for the long term good of the public. It was to make big businesses mindful of their effect on the environment
Founder of the WCTU, Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union., Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Henry Demarest Lloyd
Lloyd wrote the book Wealth Against Commonwealth in 1894. It was part of the progressive
movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrongs in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.1
This 1906 act was signed by Teddy Roosevelt to give the ICC the right to set rates that would be reasonable. It
also extended the jurisdiction of the ICC to cover express, sleeping car, and pipeline companies. It prohibited free passes and
rebates. It was the first time in U.S. history that a government agency was given power to establish rates for private companies.
Johnson was a progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the Republican governor of
California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over
Ida Tarbell was a "muckraker" who wrote an expose in the magazine McClure's (1921). As a younger woman, in
1904, Tarbell made her reputation by publishing the history of the Standard Oil Company, the "Mother of Trusts." In it she
blasted Standard Oil for using ruthless tactics to drive competition out of business. All her facts checked out as accurate.
"Initiative" is the process of the people petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist party's
platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to make the people more responsible for their laws and
allow them to make political decisions rather than the legislature.
Jacob Riis was a reporter for the New York Sun. He was a photojournalist. His book, How the Other Half Lives
detailed life in the slums. He was trying to bring attention to the situation of the poor to bring about some sort of change.
Robert M. LaFollete
He was the governor of Wisconsin, nicknamed "Fighting Bob," and was a progressive Republican leader. His "Wisconsin Idea" was the model for state progressive governments. He used the "brain trust," a panel of experts, to help him create effective, efficient government. He was denied the nomination for the Republicans in favor of Theodore
Sinclair was the author of the sensational novel, The Jungle, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his 'book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products and led to the Meat Inspection Act and then the Pure Food and
This law was signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. It was supposed to lower tariff rates, but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions on it that actually raised tariffs. This split the Republican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
This act was Congress's response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. In the law, Washington was to collect money from sales of public lands in western states and use the funds for development of irrigation projects.
Pure Food and Drug Act
It was created in 1906 and was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. It was made to protect the consumer.
Meat Inspection Act
This law was passed in 1906 after The Jungle grossed out America. It stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. It was part of the Progressive reforms, which helped the
Northern Securities Case
The Northern Securities Company was a holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first "trust-bust."
The Seventeenth Amendment was adopted in 1913 shortly after "direct primaries" were adopted. Prior to the amendment, U.S. senators were chosen by state legislators who were controlled by political machines. Elected in such a manner, U.S. senators seemed to answer only to state legislatures but not to the people. The 17th Amendment stated that
senators were now to be elected by popular vote from the citizens of their state.
- This was a nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines who spent a lot of time researching and
digging up "muck," hence the name muckrakers. These investigative journalists were trying to make the public aware of
problems that needed fixing and corruption that needed cleaning. This name was given to them by Pres. Roosevelt in 1906.
Robert M. LaFollete
- He was the governor of Wisconsin, nicknamed "Fighting Bob," and was a progressive Republican
leader. His "Wisconsin Idea" was the model for state progressive governments. He used the "brain trust," a panel of experts, to help him create effective, efficient government. He was denied the nomination for the Republicans in favor of Theodore Roosevelt.
A naturalists who achieved a degree of popular success with his adventure stories The Call of the Wild (1903) and The Sea Wolf (1904), celebrating the triumph of brute force and the will to survive.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
The Bitter Cry of the Children,Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
"founder of the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service, which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities; considered the founder of public health nursing"
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
Lockner vs New York
declared that bakers could not work more then sixty hours per week.
Louis D. Brandeis
A lawyer and later justice of the Supreme Court who spoke and wrote widely (especially in Other People's Money ) about the "curse of bigness." He insisted that government must regulate competition in such a way as to ensure that large combinations did not emerge.
Muller vs Oregon
1908 - Louis D Branders got the Supreme Court to accept laws protecting women against the harmful effects of factory labor
National Consumer's Leauge
Led by Florence Kelly - Mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws safeguarding women and children in the workplace
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
A belief that personal freedom and solving social problems are more important than religion
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
A process that reduces the amount of damage mining does to ecosystems is
a section of a city where prostitution is officially or unofficially tolerated
Taft's Secretary of the Interior, allowed a private group of business people to obtain several million acres of Alaskan public lands
Financial downturn in 1907 that featured runs on banks, suicides, and criminal indictments against speculators; paved the way for fiscal reforms
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
the religious doctrines preached by those who believed that the churches should directly address economic and social problems.
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers, President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Eccentric economist who criticized the wealthy for "conspicuous consumption" and failure to serve real human needs
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
NYC, March 25, 1911; industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 146 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths. It was the worst workplace disaster in New York City until September 11, 2001. The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, which fought for safer and better working conditions for sweatshop workers in that industry; located in the Asch Building
Trust-busting is any government activity designed to kill trusts or monopolies. Theodore Roosevelt is the U.S. president most associated with dissolving trusts. However, William Howard Taft signed twice as much trust-busting legislation during his presidency. A trust is a monopoly (group of different things all controlled by one management).
Victor L. Berger
This Austrian-born Socialist, was elected as a House of Reps member for Milwaukee, but was denied his seat in 1919 during a wave of anti-socialist hysteria.
William Jennings Brown
a democrat running for president supported by the Populists
Women's Trade Union League
a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions