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ch 7, 8, 9, 10

All questions from review sheets 7, 8, 9, 10.
STUDY
PLAY
Ethical concepts include:
A. right and wrong
B. good and bad
C. just and unjust
D. virtue and vice
E. all of the above
E. all of the above
The ethical theory that claims moral values depend on individual opinion or cultural norms is:
A. ethical absolutism
B. ethical relativism
C. ethical determinism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics
B. ethical relativism
The ethical theory that claims moral values apply to all people in all circumstances is:
A. ethical absolutism
B. ethical relativism
C. ethical determinism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics.
A. ethical absolutism
The ethical theory in which the individual determines what is right and wrong based on how they feel is:
A. ethical subjectivism
B. cultural relativism
C. ethical determinism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics
A. ethical subjectivism
The ethical theory in which what is considered right or wrong is dependent on societal acceptance is:
A. ethical absolutism
B. ethical determinism
C. cultural relativism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics
C. cultural relativism
The view that we are compelled by our psychological makeup to always pursue our own interest is:
A. ethical egoism
B. divine command theory
C. empathy
D. psychological egoism
E. none of the above
D. psychological egoism
The ethical theory that proposes we pursue our own happiness and self-interest is:
A. ethical egoism
B. divine command theory
C. empathy
D. psychological egoism
E. none of the above
A. ethical egoism
The ethical theory that proposes we act morally when we do what God commands us to do is:
A. ethical egoism
B. divine command theory
C. empathy
D. psychological egoism
E. none of the above
B. divine command theory
Ethical subjectivism is a recipe for moral anarchy. T or F
True
Cultural relativism commits the "naturalistic fallacy." T or F
True
Descriptive ethics addresses "what ought to be the case." T or F
False
Normative ethics addresses "what is the case." T or F
False
Ethical relativism denies the possibility of an absolute, universal ethics. T or F
True
For Rand, altruism and compassion are virtues. T or F
False
For Rand, selfishness is virtuous. T or F
True
Natural Law ethics is the view that universal moral values can be discovered in nature by using the faculty of reason. T or F
True
King, Jr. argued that civil disobedience is moral if it does not conflict with Human Law. T or F
False
There is no difference between studying morality and being a moral person. T or F
False
Studying the philosophy of religion is designed to turn all persons into atheists and engage persons in emotional arguments. T or F
False
Studying the philosophy of religion is designed to expand, enrich, and deepen your understanding of other religions. T or F
True
Arguments for the existence of God were presented to satisfy a desire for objective proof of a transcendent being. T or F
True
A theodicy is a defense of the justness or goodness of God in the face of doubts or objections arising from the problem of evil. T or F
True
Kierkegaard argued that the existence of God is knowable objectively. T or F
False
For Buddhists, all suffering emanates from desire. T or F
True
For Judaism, devotion and obedience to Yahweh will result in special consideration and protection. T or F
True
For Kierkegaard, a "leap of faith" serves no purpose in knowing whether God exists or not. T or F
False
For Clifford, one can believe in God's existence without sufficient evidence. T or F
False
For James, one can believe in God's existence without sufficient evidence. T or F
True
A term used to designate the complex mosaic of religious beliefs and practices of the majority of people in India.
Hinduism
A monotheist religion that believes Muhammad is the last and final prophet to receive the word of God (Allah).
Islam
A nontheist religion that believes in the "ultimate transformation" through an aspiration to escape the world of suffering by achieving Nirvana, which is the ultimate egoless state of bliss.
Buddhism
Localized religions that emphasize the development of proper relationship with the spirit world and that this spiritual world is connected with the physical world.
Indigenous Sacred Ways
A way of life inspired from the rhythms of the natural phenomena.
Taoism
A monotheist religion that believes God (Yahweh) entered into a covenant with Abraham. Through devotion and obedience to the Yahweh, the believers will enjoy special consideration and protection.
Judaism
A monotheist religion that split off from Judaism and believes that Jesus is the son of God and savior whose death and resurrection makes it possible for believers' souls to enjoy eternal life in Heaven.
Christianity
Who defined religion as "a means toward ultimate transformation?"
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani
A Streng
Who argued that religion is a human construction, an idealized perfection?
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani
B Feuerbach
Who argued that all religions are expressions of a patriarchal reality in which women are placed in a subjugated position?
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani
C Daly
Who believed that religion is a vital personal quest all must face when confronted with the possible meaninglessness of life?
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani
D Nishitani
Religions that remain tied to the original people and location from which they developed are called:
A Christianity
B Islam
C Taoism
D Indigenous sacred ways
E none of the above
D Idigenous sacred ways
Of the following, which religion does not believe in a transcendent being or beings?
A Christianity
B Islam
C Judaism
D Buddhism
E Hinduism
D Buddhism
Of the following, which religion believes that souls can have eternal salvation due to a belief in Jesus?
A Christianity
B Islam
C Judaism
D Buddhism
E Hinduism
A Christianity
Of the following, which religion believes that Muhammad is the last and final prophet to receive the word of God?
A Christianity
B Islam
C Judaism
D Buddhism
E Hinduism
B Islam
Religion can provide a framework for human life. Of the following, what kinds of question can religion answer?
A What is the meaning and purpose of my life?
B What is my destiny?
C How ought I to conduct my life?
D What happens when I die?
E All of the above
E All of the above
The ethical theory that focuses on the moral quality of individual character rather than individual actions is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C consequentialism
D all of the above
E none of the above
A virtue ethics
The ethical theory that focuses on the notion of duty and obligations as the standard for determining the moral value of actions is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C consequentialism
D all of the above
E none of the above
B deontology
The ethical theory that focuses on the ends of actions rather than the means of actions is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C consequentialism
D all of the above
E none of the above
C consequentialism
The ethical theory that proposes all actions should promote the greatest happiness and least amount of suffering for the greatest number of people is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C divine command theory
D existential ethics
E utilitarianism
E utilitarianism
Who argued that an act is moral when it produces the most pleasure and least suffering or pain?
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre
D Bentham
Who believed that the principle of utility ought to be applied to non human animals as well as humans?
A Aristotle
B Mill
C Rand
D Epicurus
E SartrE
B Mill
Who argued that to be virtuous is to seek the "Golden Mean?"
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre
A Aristotle
Who argued that moral value is determined by following the maxims prescribed by reason?
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre
B Kant
Who claimed that we must recognize that the moral choices we make are for all humankind and we must resist the urge to escape this responsibility for all humankind?
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre
E Sartre
Who agued that individual actions are motivated by a "caring response" rooted in "natural caring?"
A Noddings
B Kant
C Rand
D Mill
E Sartre
A Noddings
According to de Beauvoir, what gives life meaning?
A relationship to God
B relationship to the Good
C relationship with oneself
D relationship to others
E all of the above
E All of the above
For Aristotle, everyone should pursue "happiness." T or F
True
For Kant, to become moral, a person must develop the "good will" to follow moral laws. T or F
True
For Kant, moral maxims focus on the content, consequences, and intentions of actions. T or F
False
For Epicurus, to pursue sensual pleasure was the sole purpose in life. T or F
False
Ethical hedonism is the view that an action's consequences determine its moral value. T or F
True
For Mill, there is no distinction between intellectual pleasures and sensual pleasures. T or F
False
Singer argued that "specieism" is morally wrong and employed the principle of utility as justification. T or F
True
The hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative are two kinds of moral imperatives. T or F
True
Existential ethics are devoid of moral values. T or F
False
Nietzsche believed that we must exercise our "will to power" to the fullest possible extent. T or F
True
For Camus, finding meaning in life is impossible. T or F
False
Virtue is selfishness or Egoism. _____
Rand
Duty and obligations are the standard for determining the moral value of actions. ______
Kant
Developed the hedonistic calculus. ______
Bentham
Argued that freedom only has meaning in relationship to others who are exercising their freedom of choice. ______
De Beauvoir
Emphasized the ethics of care being rooted in natural caring. _____
Noddings
Argued that the principle of utility is applicable to non human and human animals. ______
Mill
Argued that the accumulation of moral actions builds a consistent moral character. ______
Aristotle
Believed that one must never succumb to the values of the crowd. _____
Kierkegaard
Proposed that we avoid the inauthentic life and resist the urge to escape responsibility for all humankind. ______
Sartre
Which of the following concepts must be considered when defining an ideal just society?
A Justice
B Duty
C Rights
D Freedom
E All of the above
E All of the above
Who argued that an ideal state could only be achieved by a commitment to the principles of virtue, both by the leaders and the citizens?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle
A Confucius
Who claimed that society ought to be based on function and harmony?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle
B Plato
Who believed that the state is prior to the individual?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle
E Aristotle
Who argued that humans are fundamentally predisposed to selfishness and "state of nature," and when unrestrained by laws, leads to chaos?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle
D Hobbes
Who believed that humans are governed by natural laws and entitled to inalienable rights, such as the right to life, liberty, health, and property?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Rawls
C Locke
Who claimed that to conceive of a fair and just society, we must assume a "veil of ignorance" regarding our own standing and situation within that idealized society?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E none of the above
E none of the above
What is the sociopolitical view that believes society's resources belong to all members and ought to be shared with everyone?
A liberalism
B capitalism
C socialism
D all of the above
E none of the above
C socialism
What is the sociopolitical view that champions the liberty, rights, and responsibilities of the individual?
A liberalism
B capitalism
C socialism
D all of the above
E none of the above
A liberalism
Who argued that a reconsideration of traditional gender roles is necessary so we can develop a more just and fair society?
A Aristotle
B Plato
C Hobbes
D Okin
E all of the above
D Okin
Distributive justice is a theory that deals with how society's wealth, opportunity, and power should be distributed. T or F
True
Retributive justice is a theory that deals with how societies should treat those who violate laws. T or F
True
For Plato, a just society allows for civil disobedience. T or F
False
For Aristotle, living in society is unnatural. T or F
False
A social contract is an agreement between people and their rulers or among people in the community. T or F
True
For Hobbes and Locke, individual must be coerced to enter into a social contract. T or F
False
For Rawls, a society is just only if it is truly fair. T or F
True
For Marx, it is inevitable that the proletariat will rise in revolution against the bourgeoisie. T or F
True
Capitalism is a social organization based on communal ownership of resources and self-government. T or F
False
Mill believed that it was never acceptable to interfere with an individual's liberty. T or F
False
A society ought to be based on a social contract recognizing certain inalienable rights for individuals. ______
Locke
For there to be meaningful justice, a radical restructuring of gender roles is necessary. ______
Okin
Rejects the idea that government has the right to interfere with individual liberty except in those cases where the general welfare of others is threatened. _____
Mill
Argued that humans do have the right to defend themselves and through the use of reason recognize the necessity of a social contract. _____
Hobbes
Argued that "man is a political creature" by nature. ______
Aristotle
Believed society consisted of three classes: philosopher-kings, guardians, and workers. ________
Plato
Developed a view of society that has dominated Chinese culture. ______
Confucius
Argued that capitalism is flawed. ______
Marx
Believed in two principles of justice: equal right to liberty and equal opportunity. _____
Rawls