Child Development key terms - whole course

STUDY
PLAY
Centile chart
A chart on which measurements are marked and compared with those of other children of the same age.
grasping reflex
an infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
Emotional Development
A process in which children learn to identify their feelings and control the accompanying behavior.
gross motor skills
physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping
startle reflex
a newborn's automatic response to a loud noise or a touch on the stomach, in which the legs are thrown up, fingers spread, and arms are first extended, and then brought back rapidly while the fingers close in a grasping action
Hollistic
dealing with something as a whole rather than by its individual parts
Physical Development
an area of child development based on muscle control and coordination
Ex: a child can hop on one foot without losing balance
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Areas of child development
-Intellectual
-Physical
-Social
-Emotional
-language
Social Development
The process in which children learn to adapt to the world around them.
Memory
The ability to retain information for later use.
Intellectual Development
The growth of mental skills.
Milestones
Major accomplishments within each area of development
Fine Motor Skills
small movements — such as picking up small objects and holding a spoon — that use the small muscles of the fingers, toes, wrists, lips, and tongue
formula
artificial milk used instead of human milk. Can cause asthma, allergies, poor brain development, SIDS, malnutrition, death, cancer, other diseases
Birth defect
An abnormally formed organ or body part that are present at the time of birth.
SIDS
The death of a seemingly healthy baby in its sleep, due to an apparent spontaneous cessation of breathing.
Associative Play
A child playing with other children. Involved in similar activities but not identical. (3-4 years)
Amniotic Sac
Fluid-filled sac that contains and protects a fetus in the womb.
FAS
Physical and mental damage in a child due to alcohol exposure while in the womb.
Chromosomal defect
Involve abnormal number or structure Down Syndrome
Amniotic Fluid
Fluid surrounding a fetus - protects skin and cushions
Placenta
Stores oxygen and nourishment from the mother's blood
Cooperative Play
play together in same activity (4+ years)
Solitary Play
A child playing alone, has no interest in anyone else or what they are doing. (birth - 2 years)
Toddler
Ages: 1-3, Time of great cognitive, emotional and social development
Preschooler
Ages 3-4, Developing the basic life skills, independence, and knowledge that they will need as they enter school
Parallel Play
Children playing beside one another not with. There is no actual interaction but the toys are similar. (2+ years)
Cesarean birth
Baby is surgical expelled through the mother's abdomen. Reasons for C-Section: Lack of normal progression during labor, discovering the baby is in distress, baby is breach
Conception
Once every 28 days an ovum is released. Then the women release a hormone that prepares the uterus. The sperm reaches the fallopian tubes, it may penetrate and fertilize the ovum.
Breech
Baby coming feet or butt first
Stages of Labor
Stage 1: Contractions open the cervix
Stage 2: Baby is born
Stage 3: Placenta is expelled
Formula
Prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder
Umbilical Cord
carries blood and oxygen to the placenta
Infant
Young child or baby
Preterm Labor
37 weeks or earlier, Warning Signs: Having contractions every 10 minutes or less, dull backache, leaking fluid or blood, doctors have meds to stop premature labor
Epidural
A drug is injected into the spinal cord to numb you
Midwife
A professional trained to assist women in childbirth.
Prepared Childbirth
An educational approach to labor and delivery in which the parents are specially prepared for the event.
Pediatrician
A doctor who treats babies and children
Additional Calorie Intake
100-200
Maternity Leave
The period of time that a new mother takes off from work following the birth of her baby.
Obstetrician
A physician or surgeon qualified to deliver babies
Delivery
Expulsion or extraction of the child
Labor
The physiologic process by which the uterus expels the products of conception
Length of Pregnacy
40 weeks or 280 days
Heredity & enviornment
Two factors that affect development
Guidance
All that parents say and do to influence their children's behavior in a positive way.
bonding
Strong feelings of attachment
Discipline
Process of training and learning to promote self control in a child
Rate of Development
The speed at which a child proceeds through a developmental pattern. (three words)
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Damage to an infant's brain from fast and forceful shaking. (three words)
Disease
Some are prevented by giving children immunizations.
Nurturing
An environment in which a child feels loved and supported.
infant
a child age birth to 1 year;
Punishment
withholding love, attention, toys/games, or physical (spanking) - in reaction to undesirable behavior ~undermines parent-child bond
redirection
changing the focus of a child when they are doing something undesirable - best in children under 2
folic acid
prevents neural tube defects
ovum
female egg
sperm
male egg
ovary
organ that contains eggs - female
Fallopian Tube
Where conception takes place
Uterus
Organ where baby develops
Pre-eclampsia
High blood pressure and Protein in mother's urine take oxygen and nutrients from baby
Stages of prenatal development
zygote, embryo, fetus
bloody show
loss of mucus plug from uterus 1
Dilate
widening of the cervix for baby to pass - 2
Contractions
muscle tightening that pushes baby down ward - 3
Transition
Coming down the birth canal - 4
Episiotomy
cut mom receives to widen birth canal opening - 5
Crowning
The baby's head emerges from birth canal - 6
mila
baby acne
vernix
thick white pasty substance that covers baby, protects from amniotic fluid
lanugo
Hair that covers baby for warmth
time out
one minute per year of age
Types of abuse
physical, emotional, neglect and sexual
Spectator Play
a child watches other children play but does not play with them (2 years)
unoccupied play
learning how the muscles move e.g. movements with arms, legs, hands and feet (birth - 3 months)
Adult led play
adult plans, organises and leads children in a play activity
Adult initiated play
adult puts out resources and toys that prompt children to play in a certain way
Child initiated play
children choose resources and how to play with them
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