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AP Psychology Midterm Review
For Ms. McKay's 2014 AP Psychology Midterm. Additional studying should be done involving diagrams used in class to ensure full understanding.
Terms in this set (353)
the science of behavior and mental processes
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on experimentation and observation
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain and can be revealed based on various lumps and indents on the skull
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience on them
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
A specialist that works in psychiatry (a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Scientific research that seeks to solve practical problems
American Psychological Association
The professional organization that aims to advance psychology as a science and profession and promotes health, education, and human welfare
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at the biology and basic psychology of the brain
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at those who perform "self-talks" or self-defeating thinking and seeking to change that the various forms of psychotherapy
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at the behavior of a person and applying that to wanted or unwanted behaviors
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at and emphasizing personal human growth and the potential for such
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at how various situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
The approach taken by various scientists that seek to explain things (illnesses etc.) by looking at how we have evolved and how factors through evolution could have caused various factors today
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
A factor other than the independent variable that may produce an effect in the experiment
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
In an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment
This is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements. Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method.
An English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
a German philosopher and experimental psychologist. An early pioneer in experimental psychology and founder of psychophysics, he inspired many 20th century scientists and philosophers.
A German physician, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology. He noted psychology as a science apart from biology and philosophy, was the first person to ever call himself a Psychologist. He is widely regarded as the "father of experimental psychology". In 1879, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig. This marked psychology as an independent field of study. By creating this laboratory he was able to explore the nature of religious beliefs, identify mental disorders and abnormal behavior, and find damaged parts of the brain. In doing so, he was able to establish psychology as a separate science from other topics. He also formed the first journal for psychological research in 1881.
A British psychologist who studied under Wilhelm Wundt for several years. He is best known for creating his version of psychology that described the structure of the mind; structuralism. He created the largest doctoral program in the United States (at the time) after becoming a professor at Cornell University.
G. Stanley Hall
A pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association.
In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, this man developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association (in which patients report their thoughts without reservation and in whichever order they spontaneously occur) and discovered transference (the process in which patients displace onto their analysts feelings derived from their childhood attachments), establishing its central role in the analytic process. Also developed new ideas about sexuality such as the Oedipus Complex.
An American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States, James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology."
John B. Watson
An American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, which was given at Columbia University in 1913. Through his behaviorist approach, Watson conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. In addition, he conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment which demonstrated classical conditioning in humans.
B. F. Skinner
He invented the operant conditioning chamber and pioneered the idea of operational conditioning. He was a firm believer of the idea that human free will was actually an illusion and any human action was the result of the consequences of that same action. If the consequences were bad, there was a high chance that the action would not be repeated; however if the consequences were good, the actions that led to it would be reinforced. He innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism, and founded his own school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior.
A Prague-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology
an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his life.
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of psychology.
Tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
A selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Field experiments are more naturalistic, people react more naturally but it is harder to control for other outside influences. Lab experiments allow for much more control over various factors, but are often less realistic.
A single individual is studied intensely to examine a problem or issue relevant to that person, usually involving something that is normally unethical, however, because of circumstances must be taken advantage of
The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
A systematic method for collecting data from respondents including questionnaires, face- to- face or telephone interviews, or a combination of these.
A study that demonstrates the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well one factor predicts the other
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list; the average
A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list - or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values.
Most common number in a set of data
Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Tells how many standard deviations a value is from the mean
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
These help researchers decide how confident they can be in judging that the results observed are not due to chance (T-test, Chi-square test)
Two results are only significantly different if their difference is much larger than the estimated error.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
The division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles
The part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
Part of the Autonomic System that arouses the body
Part of the Autonomic System that calms the body
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
This half of the brain generally specializes in analysis, calculation, problem solving, verbal communication, interpretation, language, reading & writing. It receives info and controls opposite of the body.
This half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body.
A thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
Controls language expression - an area of the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
Two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.
A neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
The bulbous end of a neuron containing the cell nucleus
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
The bulbous part at the end of the axon that allows for a synapse
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
A neurotransmitter associated with helping regulate body temperature, mood, sleep, and appetite.
A neurotransmitter associated with triggering muscle contractions and is also involved in memory, anger, and aggression.
Protein molecules located within or on the outer membrane of cells of various tissues, such as neurons. A receptor receives stimulation that causes a reaction resulting in stimulation or inhibition of the cell.
Affective (Sensory) Neurons
Neurons responsible for converting various external stimuli that arise from the environment of an organism, producing corresponding internal stimuli.
Effective (Motor) Neurons
Neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) that project their axons outside the CNS to directly or indirectly control muscles and movement.
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
State in which a neuron is not transmitting a nerve impulse. A neuron in this state has a net negative charge relative to its outside environment, and this state of potential energy prepares it to be activated by an impulse from an adjacent neuron.
A surgically induced brain lesion.
A surgery where the Corpus Callosum is severed to reduce epileptic seizures
Any defect in or loss of the power to express oneself by speech, writing or signs or to comprehend spoken or written language
Impairment in the ability to recognize and identify objects using only visual means; caused by lesions to the right occipital lobe
The brain's ability to, when other parts are lost or removed, compensate for the loss and adapt
Formation of new neurons
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Converting sensory inputs into different sensations
The principle that the type of sensation experienced is related to the area of the brain activated
A neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference)
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a JND
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage rather than a constant amount
The process by which the eye's lens changes to focus near or far objects on the retina. Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Cocktail Party Effect
Ability to attend to only one voice among many
Receptors in the eye that allow us to see black and white
Receptors in the eye that allow us to see color
Sharpness of vision
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.
Opponent-Process theory of color vision
The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
A visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed.
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
the change between peak (highest amplitude value) and trough (lowest amplitude value, which can be negative).
Place Theory of Hearing
The theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Frequency Theory of Hearing
The theory that the rate of a nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
An inability to hear, linked to deficit in the body's ability to transmit impulses form the cochlea to the brain, usually involving the auditory nerve or higher auditory processing center
Meaning "ringing" is the perception of sound within the human ear (ringing of the ears) when no actual sound is present, often caused when damage to the ears has occurred
A secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species
Senses, such as smell and taste, that respond to chemical molecules.
Cells in the nose that respond to chemicals and allow us to smell
A neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors.
Bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds, the receptors for taste.
the body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses
The system for sensing position and movement of individual body parts
The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
A structure in the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. The saccule and utricle, in turn, together make the otolith organs. They are sensitive to gravity and linear acceleration.
The perception of an object or quality as constant even though our sensation of the object changes
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
Our tendency to more easily recognize members of our own race
The organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surrounding (ground)
Gestalt Perceptual Principles
An organized whole. Five different types:
Visual Cliff Experiment
Eleanor J. Gibson is famous for this experiment which tested babies' depth perception by having them walk across a piece of glass with an obvious drop beneath them
Monocular Depth Cues
Depth cues available to either eye separately. Includes:
Light & Shadow
Binocular Depth Cues
Depth cues that require both eyes, such as retinal disparity
A mental disposition to perceive one thing and not another
A thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving.
The light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
The "white" that makes up the body of the eye
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Clear membrane at the front of the globe covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
The part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross
The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
The visible part of the ear that resides outside of the head
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
Three bones in either middle ear (Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup) that help conduct sound waves into the ear
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells.
The hair cells in the ear that allow for hearing
A bundle of nerve fibers extending from the cochlea of the ear to the brain that contains two branches: the cochlear nerve, which transmits sound information, and the vestibular nerve, which relays information related to balance.
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
A break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or divided
Altered State of Consciousness
A condition in which changes in mental processes are extensive enough that a person or others notice significant differences in psychological and behavioral functioning.
The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
Stages of Sleep Cycle
Four stages in the NREM sleep where stage 4 is the deepest sleep
Stage 1: Alpha Waves
Stage 2: Spindles (small bursts of brain activity)
Stage 3:Delta Waves
Stage 4: Delta Waves
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, during this stage dreams occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active
Insomnia: Unable to fall asleep or stay asleep as long as desired
Narcolepsy: Falling asleep at random times without the intention of doing so
Sleep Apnea: Pauses in breathing or instances of shallow or infrequent breathing during sleep
Enuresis: A repeated inability to control urination during sleep
Night Terrors: Feelings of terror or dread, often found in young children
The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Activation-Synthesis Dream Theory
The theory that REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brains weave into stories
Freud's explanation of dreams
Latent Content: Hidden content of a dream
Manifest Content: What actually happened in a dream
Wish-Fullfillment: Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve" -expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content - a hidden meaning
Awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening.
A system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
A learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness.
A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Hilgard's "hidden observer"
Theory about hypnosis developed by Ernest Hilgard. As a result, the hypnotized person experiences one stream of mental activity that respond's to the hypnotists suggestions while a second stream of mental activity is also processing information that is unavailable to the consciousness of the hypnotized subject.
A drug that alters behavior, thought, or perception by altering biochemical reactions in the nervous system, thereby affecting consciousness
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Psychadelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effects
The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
A Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. Mostly known for classically conditioning dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.
An American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. His work on animal behavior and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism and helped lay the scientific foundation for modern educational psychology. He also worked on solving industrial problems, such as employee exams and testing. He was a member of the board of the Psychological Corporation and served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1912. Came up with the Law of Effect
He is known as the originator of social learning theory and the theoretical construct of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment.
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
A procedure in which the reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. Also may be used to describe the "process" by which a previously learned behavior disappears as a result of non-reinforcement.
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
pairing a desired CS with an aversive UCS
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Learned reinforcers, such as money, that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers.
Interpersonal acts that serve a reinforcing function. They include "attention" (that is, looking at, answering, nodding) smiling, and statesments of recognition of approval. These are practical, because the time required to give recognition, praise, nod smile or make eye contact is minor.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
The relationship that occurs when a consequence is dependent on the organism's emitting the desired behavior
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
In operant conditioning, combining the steps of a sequence to progress toward a final action
Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses.
a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement after a varying number of responses
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time
A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning.
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
The interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
Argues that traits and situations affect thoughts, feelings, and behavior
A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.
A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins.
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
The biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear forms in the nucleus; contains genes that encode traits.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The _________ of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
The biological identity of a person based on their genitalia. Men are XY and women are XX.
The sexual identity that a person identifies with. Those that are born the same gender as their sex are known as cisgender, those that are born opposite genders as their sex are known as transgender.
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
Sensitive (Critical) Period
A limited developmental phase during which certain behaviors can be learned
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Human Growth Hormone
Produced by Pituitary Gland, stimulates growth of the body
Theory of Mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
One's sense of being male or female
A parenting style in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children's desires, and communicate poorly with their children.
A parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making
A parenting style characterized by the placement of few limits on the child's behavior.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as ice, clay, chalk, dirt, or sand
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
Primary Sex Characteristics
The body structures (Ovaries, Testes, and external genitalia) that makes sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characterisitcs
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality and body hair
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they see themselves as always "on stage" with an audience watching
For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Referred to as male menopause; is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone
An abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive defects that include memory impairment.
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
Working with geese, he rediscovered the principle of imprinting
An American-Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with the Strange situation design, as well as her work in the development of attachment theory.
An American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which demonstrated the importance of care-giving and companionship in social and cognitive development.
A Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children
Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
A situation that occurs when the level of responding observed in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even though the experimental conditions are the same as they were during the earlier phase
Lack of Conservation
Piaget's term for the inability to realize that some characteristics of an object (such as weight, area and volume) remain the same even when its shape or appearance changes.
Concrete Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Ability to recognize that objects can be transformed in some way, visually or physically, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
A German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings of which are:
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-2 years)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-4 years)
Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority (5-12 years)
Identity vs. Role Confusion (13-19 years)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-39 years)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-64 years)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65-death)
The man that came up with the theory that identities are constructed in one of the following four ways: diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, and achievement. He interviewed adolescents using these four categories.
Developed the Sociocultural Theory of cognitive development which stated that learning is continuous and needs a social context
Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
Zone of Proximal Development
In Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they receive proper guidance and instruction
An American psychologist best known for his theory of stages of moral development based off of Piaget's work. Stated that there were six stages of moral development:
1. Obedience and punishment orientation
2. Self-interest orientation
3. Interpersonal accord and conformity
4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
5. Social contract orientation
6. Universal ethical principles
Moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse
A Swiss American psychiatrist, a pioneer in near-death studies, discussed her theory of the five stages of grief:
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
A strategy for to aid in memory where a person learns one level of knowledge/specificity past what is wanted to be retained in order to better retain the desired information
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
A kind of organization, in which larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories, creating a number of levels of categories
An increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is encoded matches the situation in which it is retrieved
An increase in retrieval when the internal situation in which information is encoded matches the situation in which it is retrieved
Serial Position Effects (Primacy and Recency)
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Distributive Practice (Spacing Effect)
The idea that spreading out learning will enable better long-term storage
Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Eidetic (Photographic) Memory
The ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Remembering to perform a planned action or intention at the appropriate time
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance. Also involved with the storage of intrinsic memories.
An inability to form new memories after damage to part of the brain.
An inability to retrieve information from one's past after damage to part of the brain.
Lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age or so.
The forgetting of specific traumatic events, sometimes for many years
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical reasoning
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Mastery of one task aids learning or performing another
When experience hinders learning in a new situation
The processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning
The retention of encoded information over time
The process of getting information out of memory storage
Atkinson-Shiffrin Three-Stage Information-Processing Model
The model that depicts memory as three boxes, one for sensory, one for short-term or working memory, and one for long-term memory
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously, rather these are often linked to skills that we do, stored in the cerebellum
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare," stored around the cerebral cortex
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