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Science of Sport Exam #2 Cards
Terms in this set (140)
Is the ATP formed from CHO different from the ATP formed from Protein?
No, food does affect performance but ATP formed is always the same
There is a belief that... when exercising right after eating, a lot of blood goes to the ----- instead of the -----
intestines (digestive system), brain, may not be able to perform aerobic activity, lactic acid forms
turns out this belief has been proven false through experimentation
true or false?
eating before exercising is detrimental
false, two different experiments with no food, liquid food, and solid food and exercising at different times after eating all has the same results
true or false?
performance is affected by psychological factors
ex: some people like to be full before playing their sport or exercising while others don't like to eat at all
indication of type of fuel person is utilizing during exercise
1950's research done in Sweden
bicycle tests with three different diets (fat/protein, mixed, carbs)
carb diet able to bike for twice as long as fat/protein diet
as exercise intensity increases, the main source of energy transitions from fat to carbs
the ---- glycogen content, the ---- one can perform endurance exercise
glycogen = CHO
classic method of glycogen loading
day 1 - exhaustive exercise
day 2&3 - fat and protein only
day 4,5,&6 - high carb increase
* does not always work successfully in real life, works better in the lab
modified glycogen loading
involves no exhaustive exercise & no fat and protein diet
just taper training and eating carbs 2-3 days prior
why is glycogen loading so critical?
need enough carbs to get you through your level of exercise.
ex: running a marathon (26 miles, 2600 calories burnt) do you have enough cals stored?
1 gram of glycogen is stored with how many grams of water?
3 grams of water
200 grams of glycogen --> 600 grams of water
is it a good or bad idea to increase carbs if you're going to exercise?
should increase from avg. american diet of 50% carbs to modified diet of 65% carbs.
helps muscles maintain their glycogen levels
When training hard or performing consistently, is it most effective to eat immediately after exercising or wait?
eat immediately after exercising
does long-term exercise inhibit hunger
how rapidly your blood sugar levels spike after eating
different foods have different levels of glycemic index
high GI > 85
medium GI = 60 - 85
low GI < 60
foods that are absorbed quickly across intestines are high GI, slower absorbed foods are medium or low GI
ex: glucose, sucrose, white bread, white rice, white potatoes
60 - 85
ex: whole grain flour, brown rice, whole wheat bread, fruits, vegetables
ex: milk, fructose, legumes
take longer for the body to process
good sources of fiber
minerals and vitamins
ex: sweet potatoes, whole grains, vegetables
break down quickly into sugars
have little fiber
found in highly processes foods
ex: cookies, candies, pasta, chips
can athletes benefit at all from unhealthy simple carbs?
consuming excess amounts of protein (more than RDA recommended 0.8g) to increase muscle size
protein is often the main ingredient in weight loss diets, protein can't cause weight gain and loss.
what is actually needed to increase muscle size?
1) resistive exercise
2) increase in caloric intake
3) adequate protein
4) testosterone (anabolic hormone)
how much glycogen is stored in muscle?
about 350 grams
how much glycogen is stored in the liver?
about 50 grams
a good source of pure protein and low fat is ----
consuming a good protein source immediately after resistive exercise is ---- for improving muscle hypertrophy
3 -4 parts sugar to 1 part protein is best because...
sugar is needed to stimulate insulin secretion which helps get amino acids into the muscle cells
do athletes need for protein than the RDA?
suggested that they consume between 1-3 grams of protein per kg of body weight
depends on if they are endurance athletes (1 g) or strength/power athletes (2-3 g)
true or false?
if you eat a normal (well-balanced) diet, there is no scientific evidence that you need supplements?
supplements are the safety net for athletes bc not all of their 5k-6k cal diet is nutritious food
2 proteins found in milk
casein and whey
stimulate muscle synthesis
ergo = work
genic = help
it does the opposite effect of ergogenic
causes a negative effect
both the patient and the researcher/doctor don't know the effects of the medication
just the patient doesn't know the effects of what they're taking
subject is taking something similar
1 group on placebo and 1 group on drug, they then crossover and take each other's drug
main ingredient in energy drinks
caffeine is a ----
stimulant, it can be overdone
can cause cardiac problems
energy drinks negatively affect...
when did they start drug testing at the olympics?
1) anabolic agents
3) recreational drugs
Anabolic agents (anabolic steroids)
Promotes muscle development
Human growth hormone
Produced by Pituitary Gland
used on children that need growth stimulation
Has minimal effect on muscle growth but ppl take it anyway
Almost impossible to detect so a lot of athletes took it
Does the human growth hormone create body distortions?
Yes, creates thicker hands and feet, bigger wider jaw,
First group to use anabolic agents
Body builders at muscle beach in venice
First commercially available anabolic steroid
Beta 2 agonists
Decreases fat mass and increases fat free mass
Normally used to treat asthma (COPD)
Used by body builders, known as cutting agent because it decreases fat and increases muscle
Powerful Beta 2 agonist
Very easy to obtain, illegal in US
Causes dilation of soft tissue in trachea
Side effects of beta 2 agonists
High blood pressure and tremors
Side effects of anabolic steroids
Detrimental effects to liver and heart; athletes dropping dead
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropic hormone)
Found in female pregnancy hormone
Used when males take AS for too long which causes their gonads to atrophy, helps restimulate testosterone in testes
Converts andro to testosterone BUT... also increases blood lipids and cholesterol and eventually increases estrogen
If taken for too long men can develop female sex characteristics like manboobs
Benefit is minimal
Examples of stimulants
Caffeine, ephedrine, amphetamines
Used in wars for soldiers
Causes alertness and lack of fear
No proof that they actually enhance physical performance, simply eliminate psychological fear
No ergogenic benefit
World Anti-Doping Association
Causes increase of water loss (urination)
How are diuretics used by athletes?
Result is decrease in weight through more urination, used by athletes with weight classes (boxers & wrestlers)
Also more urination dilutes drug concentration in the urine, better covers up other drugs athletes might be taking
Increases free fatty acid mobilization
Allows athletes to exercise for longer because it lowers the perception of fatigue
True or false: caffeine is banned by WADA but accepted by the NCAA
Caffeine is banned by the NCAA but accepted by WADA
Beta 2 agonists
Produces calming effect, helps with focus, helps with stage fright, beneficial for people with cardiac disease (allows them to exercise safely)
Banned in golf, archery, and shooting competitions
Artificially raises pH
Benefits anaerobic exercise
Takes longer for lactic acid to occur so helps you be successful for longer
Ex: dropped sprinters time by seconds
BUT may cause gastrointestinal disturbances
Increases phosphocreatine (PC) levels in muscles
Improves energy storage short time high intensity exercise
Found in animal products we eat - not banned!
not good for aerobic or anaerobic BUT good for ATP/CP
Hormone that targets bone marrow to create more cells
Increases red blood cell count
Great for anemics and sickle cell patients
Helps with oxygen balance (aerobic performance) therefore good for athletes
Biotech company that created EPO 10-15 years ago used to increase RBC count
What type of drug would benefit athletes that play sports requiring strength, speed, and power?
Anabolic agents - increase muscles mass
What type of drug would benefit athletes that do short term (60 seconds or less) all out muscular exercise?
What type of drug would benefit athletes that perform high intensity anaerobic exercise lasting 1-2 mins?
What is one of the biggest reasons athletes use PED's?
$$$ you play better you make more money
Drug testing will always be way behind drug use. Why?
More money is drug development
Substance produced by cell that acts like a brake on muscle development
Myostatin mouse experiment
Researchers able to block myostatin gene in mice creating huge increase in muscle development
Possible in humans, big risk and lots of money
True or false: Reduced myostatin lowers muscle development?
FALSE reduced myostatin increases muscle development
Myostatin blocker used by weight lifters and body builders
Name the different tracts of the pulmonary system
1) the upper respiratory tract
2) the lower respiratory tract
Components of the upper respiratory tract
Components of the lower respiratory tract
Alveolar sacs and ducts: the largest area of the lungs
Follows rules of Boyle's law
When pressure increases, volume decreases and vice versa
Important element to breathing
Pressure decreases, volume increases
Pressure increases, volume decreases
Functions of upper respiratory tract
Is it dangerous to exercise in cold environments?
Only thing that would happen would be the soft tissue in your bronchial tubes might constrict making it harder to breathe
Filtration of upper respiratory tract
Filters out bad particles that we ingest from air pollution
Vital Capacity (VC)
Maximum volume of air expired > max inspiration
Referred to as functional part of the lungs
The determinant for maximal VE in an individual
Formula for lung volume
TLC = VC + RLV
Height, weight, age, and gender play a part in the algorithm
Residual Lung Volume (RLV)
Volume remaining in the lungs > max expiration
Does your TLC change over time with age?
No, it always stays the same.
Does your VC change over time with age?
Yes, it decreases as you get older.
Unsure if this is a result of aging or of lifestyle (location/pollutants)
Ventilation definition and formula
How much air comes in and out
Formula: VE = TV x RR
TV= tidal volume
RR = respiratory rate
Alveolar ventilation definition and formula
How much fresh air gets into the alveoli
Formula: VE alv = VE - (ADS x RR)
Anatomical dead space (ADS)
No gas exchange occurs in this area
Something that's always there
Ex: the alveoli
For every 1lb a person has, they have 1mL of ADS
Is it more effective to breathe quicker shallower breaths or slower and deeper breaths?
Slower and deeper breaths
Deep longer breaths give you larger tidal volume
physiological dead space
ADS + unused alveoli
For normal healthy person, PDS= ADS
BUT this is not the case for people with lung disease
Types of lung disease
Restrictive lung disease
Lowers VC and RLC increases, can't ventilate enough air
Can be related to smoking
Can cause death
obstructive lung disease
Decreases ability to expire/inspire rapidly
79% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen
Oxygen is consumed and Carbon dioxide is produced
partial pressure of oxygen
Hemoglobin oxygen dissociation
Hb: iron compound that stores a lot of O2 in a small space, helps carry oxygen more efficiently
Once it takes the O2 it doesn't let go, takes a lot to dissociate
+ Bohr effect
When body temperature increases and pH decreases
Loosens bond between oxygen and hemoglobin, happens during exercise
Shift to the right
- Bohr effect
Body temperature decreases and pH increases
Tightens the bond between hb and oxygen
Hypothermia and hyperventilating
What has the strongest effect on increasing ventilation?
Average hb in males
Do men have an advantage in aerobic exercise?
Yes, men have 10% more oxygen per unit of blood than women
Autologous blood doping
Taking out your own blood, freezing it then reinjecting it into your body to now have blood with more red blood cells and therefore higher hb and more oxygen
Safe because it's your own blood
Not enough oxygen dissociating to the brain
pH goes up
Average hb in females
Heterologous blood doping
Injecting someone else's blood into yourself
Dangerous because of contamination
Negative effects of blood doping
Added red blood cells causes the blood to become a higher viscosity which can cause blood clots and cause the heart to have to work harder
Cell portion of blood: RBCs WBCs and platelets
Whose blood is more viscous, men or women?
Males is more viscous
Males Hct is 45%
Females Hct is 38%
Is it better to clot faster or slower?
Clothing slower is better, athletes have slower clotting blood
Clot forms when blood is exposed to air
Aspirin works as a ...
Blood thinner! Helps people prevent blood clots, delays clotting time
It is an anti-thrombotic
Three parts of the blood vessel
Arteries: large diameter muscular walls
Veins: muscular walls but less muscular than arteries
Capillaries: much thinner and more numerous
Liquid portion of blood
Speed of flow in blood vessels
Fastest flowing are arteries, transport
Medium speed are veins, transport
Slowest flowing are capillaries, exchange
Within a blood vessel, where is the blood pressure the highest?
The closer to the pump the higher the blood pressure
Arteries highest and veins lowest
Clots occur on the inside of blood vessels, plaque build up in arteries
causes of atherosclerosis
Male, over 50
High cholesterol, can maintain via diet
Hypertension - high blood pressure
Scary and less common than athero
Can lead to sudden death
Hard to detect
Weakness in the artery wall
People who take stimulants are more prone
Most common in aorta
Three types of cardiac tissue
Vital capacity (VC)
max volume of air expired (functional part of lungs) (TLC-RV)
Residual Lung Volume (RLV)
volume in lungs after max expiration
Lung volume formula
Lung ratio (in young and healthy subject)
VC=80%,RLV=20% (If TLC=5L then VC=4L and RLV=1L)
(_____) has no change over time
(__) decreases over time
V = TV x RR (Ve (L/min)=Tidal Volume(TV) L/b) X RR(b/min))
Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath
When oxygen enters your body, where does it go first?
The trachea and bronchial tubes
Anatomical Dead Space (ADS)
Regions of the respiratory tract collecting air but not participating in gas exchange (throat, trachea, bronchial tubes)
the amount of air that reaches the alveoli
Physiological Dead Space
ADS + unused alveoli (for most people PDS=ADS)
Reduces airflow rates (asthma, COPD)
What is the determinant for maximal VE in an individual?
the process of obtaining oxygen from the environment and releasing carbon dioxide
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