Modern World History Ch. 7-8

VOCABULARY!!!! Info. is provided by Modern World History Book, McDougal Littel. I take no credit :))))))) For Ottawa Hills Exam
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Estates
The three large social classes in France under the Old Regime.
First Estate
Made up of the Roman Catholic Church clergy. 1% of the population, owned 10% of the land in France. Provided education and relief services to the poor and paid 2% of their income for taxes
Second Estate
Made up of rich nobles. 2% of population, 20% of the land. Paid almost no taxes.
Third Estate
97% of France's population. Was separated into the bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants. Paid 50% of their income for taxes
Bourgeoisie
The middle class of France. (Bankers, Factory Owners, Merchants, Professionals, and Skilled Artisans,) Could be as rich as the noble, but had to pay REALLY HIGH taxes.
Tithe
10% of peasants' income paid to the church in the form of produce
Louis XVI
The weak king who's extravagant spending, inherited debt, and ongoing wars put the government in severe debt. He was the king during the French Revolution.
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI's wife that loved to spend A LOT of money on herself, and was already unpopular in France since she came from an Austrian royal family. She also gave Louis XVI bad advice.
Estates-General
And assembly of representatives from all three of France's estates.
National Assembly
The group made by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyés, made up of Third Estate delegates, that pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Tennis Court Oath
When found locked out of the meeting room, the Third Estate delegates made this pledge to stay indoors until they had finished drawing up a new constitution.
Bastille
The place that was stormed by French citizens to look for gunpowder and arms, when they heard of rumors that Louis XVI was gathering troops to take away the National Assembly, or that foreign troops were coming to Paris to massacre them.
Great Fear
The wave of senseless panic that rolled through France when people heard rumors that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants.
Declaration for the Right of Man and of the Citizen
A statement of revolutionary ideals, that stated that "men are born and remain free and equal rights." which include "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." Freedom of speech and religion.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
The expression used by revolutionary leaders. (3 words)
Olympe de Gouges
A writer who published a declaration of the rights of women, but it was rejected. 1793, she was declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed.
Legislative Assembly
When the National Assembly completed a new constitution, a new legislative body with the power to create laws and approve or reject declarations of war was created.
Radicals
Sat on the left side of the hall and opposed the idea of monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in the way the gov. was run.
Moderates
Sat in the center of the hall, and only wanted some changes in the gov.
Conservatives
Saat on the right side of the hall, and upheld the idea of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes in the gov.
Liberals
Mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and land owners could vote.
Émigrés
The name of the nobles and others who had fled France
Sans-culottes
The Parisian workers and small shopkeepers who wanted the Revolution to bring greater changes to France
September Massacres
When rumors that the king held in Paris prisons planned to break out and seize control, the angry citizens took law into their own hands and raided prisons and murdered over 1,000 prisoners.
National Convention
The Legislative, pressured by the Radicals, set aside the constitution, deposed the king, and dissolved the assembly, and called for a new legislature. The new government body was called________. This body declared France a republic.
Jacobin Club
Most of the people involved in the governmental changes in September 1792 were members of this radical political organization.
Jacobins
Club members of the Jacobin Club.
Jean-Paul Marat
One of the most prominent Jacobins, who edited the L'Ami du Peuple. Said all in support of the king should die. He died in the bathtub after being stabbed.
Guillotine
The beheading machine that chopped off many supporters of the kings heads.
Maximilien Robespierre
One of the Jacobin leaders who slowly gained power, and tried to wipe out EVERY trace of France's past, by even changing the calendar. He closed all churches in Paris.
Committee of Public Safety
The group that was supposed to protect the Revolution from its enemies
Reign of Terror
The time when Robespierre governed France as a dictator, and justified his actions by suggesting that it allowed French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution.
The Directory
When people were tired of Robespierre's terror and the high prices of bread, they changed government. Power was placed on the upper middle class and called for two-house legislature and an executive body of five men (moderates)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Coup d'état
Napoleon's sudden seizure of power
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon's comprehensive system of laws. Gave France a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices. However, it limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual right.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of enslaved Africans in Saint Domingue, who defeated Napoleon and took control of Saint Domingue, and renamed it Haiti
Battle of Trafalgar
The major naval battle lost by Napoleon, which insured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years, and forced Napoleon to give up his plans for invading Britain.
Continental System
Napoleon's plan to set up a blockade between Great Britain and other European Nations, which failed miserably.
Guerillas
Bands of Spanish peasants fighters, that worked in small groups, ambush and flee.
Peninsular War
The war that occurred when Napoleon sent invasion force through Spain to get to Portugal to get them to accept the Continental System. The Spanish disagreed and revolted, with the help of the British, and made Napoleon loose 300,000 men.
Czar Alexander I
The Russian leader who refused to stop selling grain to Britain, although he was Napoleon's ally. So when the French and Russians suspected each other of having competing designs on Poland, this rulers and Napoleons alliance broke.
Scorched-earth policy
Russians technique, to burn grain fields and slaughter live stock so there was nothing for the enemy to eat.
Battle of Waterloo
When Napoleon escaped Elbaand then regained power quickly since the new king in France sucked. Then Napoleon attacked Britain, who joined with Prussia and defeated him.
Congress of Vienna
The group made to establish long-lasting peace and stability on the continent after Napoleon.
Klemens von Metternich
Influential representative of the Congress of Vienna, who was a foreign minister of Austria, and a prince. He distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution.
3 goals of Metternich
-prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries
-restore a balance of power
-restore Europe's royal families to the throne
Holy Alliance
The agreement signed by Russian, Austrian, and Prussian rulers that stated to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of the revolution.
Concert of Europe
The series of alliances devised by Metternich that ensured that nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out.
Nationalism
The belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history
Nation-state
When a nation had its own independent government, it became a ________.
Assimilation
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Romanov Dynasty
The ruling family of Russia determined to maintain iron control over Russia's diversity.
Russification
The policy the forced Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire, which actually strengthened ethnic nationalistic feelings which helped DISunify Russia.
Victor Emmanuel II
1852, Sardinia's king.
Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister of Victor Emmanuel II, who worked to expand Piedmont-Sardinia's power. He succeeded in taking all of northern Italy, except Venetia.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Visionary soldier that captured Sicily, who let King Victor Emmanuel II take it willingly.
Red Shirts
The followers of Giuseppe Garibaldi.
German Confederation
39 German states formed a loose grouping called:
Wilhelm I
In 1861, this ruler succeeded Frederick William to the throne. When the liberal parliament refused to give him money to double the strength of his army, he saw it as a challenge to his authority
Junkers
Wilhelm I supporters, strong conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class.
Otto von Bismarck
Conservative Junker who was Wilhelm I prime minister expanded Prussia and purposely stirred a war with Austria.
Realpolitik
"The politics of reality." Tough power politics with no room for idealism.
Schleswig & Holstein
Prussia and Austria formed an alliance to go to war against Denmark to win these two border provinces
Annexation
The adding of one territory to an existing one
Franco-Prussian War
Prussia wanted to take the German States, so to gain their support, they made up "incidents" to make the Germans want to join sides to fight France.
Kaiser
Emperor, in german...
Second Reich
Germans second empire (Holy Roman Empire was First)
Romanticism
The movement that reflected deep interest both in nature and in the thoughts and feelings of the individual. IMAGINATION!
Mary Shelley
Writer of Frankenstein, woman
Realism
Tried to show life as it was, not as it should be. Photographs, or paintings of the struggle of the lower class.
Charles Dickens
The writer of A Tale of Two Cities, Great Expectations, and more. A realist writer.
Impressionism
Showed peoples perception of life, instead of "as it really was" Used pure, shimmering colors to capture a moment seen at a glance.
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